Gopyiigtitl^^. Ci}RiaUGHT DEPOSCr^ THE MAKING OF THE UNIVERSE JflMES COFFEE HARRIS j(nr\ 7X^ THE MAKING OF THE UNIVERSE BY JANES COFFEE HARRIS CAUE SPRING GEORGIA COPYRIGHT 1919 Nonuibij ICI.A536964 INDEX Book I. Chapter I. The Making of Matter 3 Chapter II. The Structure of the Atom 5 Chapter III. The Universe 33 Book II. Chapter I. The Making of the Heavens 3 Book III. Chapter I. The Making of the Earth 3 Chapter II. The End of the World 25 Book IV. The Making of Living Things Chapter I. The Dust Becomes Living Things 5 Chapter II. Life Changes Its Forms 27 Chapter III. The Forms of Life 39 Chapter IV. The Factors of Evolution 65 Chapter V. The Laws of Inheritance 79 Chapter VI. The Facts From Fossils 97 Chapter VII. The Cycle of Creation 117 A Foreword The purpose of the author in the pages that are to follow is to J^al^a JaitMulstatement of the natural development of*^fe^?a?ir*fe)ears to the scientists now at work in the great universities of the world, and thus to present a view of nature consistent with all known things. He believes that our only hope of making progress toward truth and happiness is found in facing the facts and learning the laws of nature. In the light of modern science one may now see what are really facts and what are really laws, and he may discern a world of individual things which are but transient parts of an eternal and ever- changing universe, just as the eye can see the houses which are but parts of one city, or the trees which are but parts of one forest. This wonderful vision of the scheme of life seen by modern science the author will try to portray. In making this portrayal he has not presented the least thing that he can claim to be original with him- self, for he has kept well within the tested truths of science, the oft-furrowed fields of the biologists, a body of men as faithful and as able as ever lived. For this reason they are the best guides known to man in his search for realities. The view presented is a process of creation of varied living forms by an evolutionary method fol- lowing natural laws that seem to be without varia- bleness or shadow of turning. It will be seen that all forms of matter and phases of mind are brought into existence through these laws, and as they are invariable, they must be derived from the nature of an invariable Power, the Everlasting God. The view presented is a very recent achievement of man. It was in 1859 that Darwin's ''Origin of THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Species" gave to the world his great discovery that the creation of new and ever better adapted forms of plants and animals was accomplished by the survival of the fittest, or to use his words, by natural selection of those best adapted to live. Now all higher insti- tutions of learning are teaching that this is true, and that the processes of nature are always the same when conditions are the same, that what we call natural laws are invariable. It was in 1895 that X- Rays were discovered by Roentgen which gave us insight into the world of atoms, whose existence had been known to all chemists since 1803. It was in 1896 that spontaneous radio-activity was discovered by Becquerel and the atom suspected to be nothing more than a group of electrons. It was in 1898 that the electron was isolated by Sir Joseph J. Thompson, and it was in 1904, well after the beginning of the twentieth century, that the electron was proved by Rutherford and others to be the unit of mass and force, the sole building stone of every material thing in the universe. With the mind's eye we now plainly see that these almost infinitesimal units of sensitive energy weave by their combinations the eighty-three kinds of atoms and that these atoms weave by their combinations the ever-varying forms of matter known to us — the suns and the planets, the plants and the animals, those already woven and those now in the loom of time. We now plainly see that the units of sensitive energy which form the apparently insensible rock and dust and air and water are exact- ly like those which form the sensitive plants and the thinking animals. Indeed the same units of energy which today compose the rock may tomorrow com- pose the plant or animal. The sensitivity of the units that compose the rock becomes sensation in living things, and sensation in living things become thoughts in animals with a brain. The Making of Matter • Every reasoning man desires an answer to this question : What is, the ultimate nature of the matter which we see as rocks, trees, animals, stars, indeed everything? We observe that this matter is ever changing its form; now it builds a rock, which, as it disintegrates, becomes the dust of the earth ; this in turn becomes the grass which^ on being consumed by the ox, becomes the body of an animal that feels, thinks and acts. A sentient being has been devel- oped from the apparently insensible rock. The dust of the earth has become a thinking being. The ques- tion is: What are the real units of this protean ma- terial out of which every thing in the universe has been built? How did they become the sun and the stars and earth and planet and animal ? These are questions which physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology are striving to ans- wer, and he who seeks to see the world as it is will try to find what is known by the scientists who de- vote their lives to these great fields of search for truths. Their opinion should be held in highest re- spect, for the reason that they, of all men, have the largest opportunity to find the facts and the greatest ability to interpret them. While it is, of course, im- possible for the scientists, however great their ability or opportujiity, to know the whole truth, we may safely say that they furnish the closest approxima- tions possible for us to obtain. An attentive student of the truths which they pro- claim as the results of their research will find a world far more wonderful and interesting than man could have imagined. The microscope, which en- THE MAKING OF MATTER larges an area a million times, and other instruments of precision multiply many thousand fold the power of the eye and other senses of man. These instru- ments reveal to him the ceaseless motion in every atom of matter and in all parts of space. They re- veal the play of the forces in the intricate mechan- ism of the cell, billions of which make up the form of every living thing, whether it be a tree, fish, bird, beast or man. They also reveal millions of stars which move and sparkle beyond the range of ordi- nary vision. The facts that have come to us in this way and that are verifiable by any student are far more important than those coming to us through our unaided senses, for they are realities which we must have in order to see the world as it is. We also find from these facts that all the forms of matter which we see about us are, without excep- tion, temporary structures. The rock and the water, the sun and the planets, the plants and the animals, and the stars of the heavens change from day to day, and in the course of time they, each and all, go out of existence. Nothing in nature that we can see or touch endures forever, but all the forms seen by us on earth or in the heavens come into existence and go out of existence. We find that all forms are but temporary groupings of atoms of oxygen, gold, iron, carbon, or other elements. All forms will cease to exist, for the atoms composing them were once the constituents of other forms and they will go from the forms which they now make to other forms to be made by them. The atoms that disappear from one form reappear in another. The cloud ceases to be when the atoms that compose it go to the making of rain drops. THE MAKING OF MATTER The Structure of the Atom The atoms of oxygen, gold, iron, etc.^, the "ele- ments," are not the ultimate particles of matter, for they each and all are composed of vibrating, self- active units of electric force, v^hich are apart from each other vast distances as compared with their size. The atom is therefore a very porous object. We know these to be facts even though we have never seen and can hardly hope ever to see the atoms themselves. They are so small that it takes many hundred of them to make a particle large enough to be seen through our highest power microscope. We now know, however, that atoms exist. We have be- lieved this since 1808, but only recently could it be truthfully said that we know it. By the passage of the X-rays through certain crystals we can now deduce the spaces between the planes of the atoms, finding these spaces to be in most cases less than one- hundred-millionth of an inch. This was done in 1913. We now know that the crystals of rock salt and diamond have a certain geometrical figure be- cause the atoms composing them are arranged so as to form cubes. The X-rays have enabled us to see that the atoms of salt and diamond are equidistant from one another, as is true of all atoms in all solids, and they lie in certain planes between which X-rays (short ether waves) may pass without interference. The planes in which the atoms lie make on the photo- graph plate dark lines, and we get a figure like the grating to a window. Thus we prove that the atoms exist and at certain distances apart. A study of the X-ray spectra under different temperatures shows certain changes which are due to the motion of the atom. THE MAKING OF MATTER From an address by Sir Ernest Rutherford (Popu- lar Science Monthly, August, 1915) we make the following excerpt to show what is known as to the grouping of atoms in certain crystals: *'By a study of the position and intensity of the X- ray spectra in different orders thrown by the crys- tals, it was possible to examine in detail the structui^e of the crystal and to deduce the grating space, i. e., the distance between the successive planes of atoms. The subject is so large and the discovery of this ^ FIG. 1. Arrangements of atoms in a rock salt crystal; white circles represent sodium atoms and black, chlo- rine. (Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1916.) method so recent, that so far only a few of the typi- cal crystals have been examined, but in these cases we are able to obtain most positive evidence of the grouping of the atoms in the crystal. The result in- dicates that the atom and not the molecule is the unit of the crystal structure. Consider the structure of the simple cubic crystal of rock salt (sodium chlo- ride.) The structure of the crystal deduced by Bragg is shown in Fig. 1. The sodium atoms are marked by black spheres, the chlorine atoms by white spheres. The simplicity of the crystal archi- tecture is obvious, for all the atoms are equidistant. The structure of the diamond is more complicated THE MAKING OF MATTER but it is one of great interest, for all the atoms in these cases are of but one kind, carbon.'* The existence of atoms is also proved by the fact that microscopic particles of matter suspended in water, as for instance globules in an emulsion made of gamboge or mastic, are seen under the microscope to dart hither and thither, to and fro, in startling and irregular fashion. This is due to the fact that they are being bombarded by molecules of water, infini- tesimal bodies made of two atoms of hydrogen and yra^j^^^ "-;;/«?i)l^}ff^ 'f *'^ m FIG. 2. Arrangement of carbon atoms in a diamond. (Report of Smithsonian Institution, 1916 ) one of oxygen. The minute globules of gamboge are urged first this way and then that, often sudden- ly shooting forward, by the impact of the myriads of molecules which do not strike on all the surface of the suspended particle with equal force. These movements of suspended particles in a liquid, called from their discoverer Brownian movements,, are just such as would be produced by the agitation of the molecules if the molecular theory of matter were true. The velocity of the agitation or vibration of THE MAKING OF MATTER tl;ie atoms increases or decreases with the increase or decrease of the temperature. It is believed, how- ever, that at absolute zero, 273 degrees below zero centigrade, the motion of the atom ceases. It is in- teresting to note in passing that the scientists suc- ceeded in 1914 in reaching a temperature within less than three degrees of this absolute zero. The atoms themselves, till recently thought to be indestructible and therefore permanent, are, as has been said, but various groupings of units of electric- ity. Some atoms, as radium and others, are losing their component units of electricity and when all the units have gone nothing is left. The atoms then go o it of existence. Each unit that composes the atom is a fixed quan- tity of electric force, which occupies a fixed quantity of space, there being two varieties, positive and negative. The atom is therefore an electrical struc- ture. The more units of electricity grouped together in an atom, the heavier the atom is. There is much reason to believe that the lightest atom, hydrogen, is composed of one positive charge as a nucleus, about which one negative electron rotates. An oxy- gen atom is believed to be made by a nucleus which has eight positive charges in excess of the negatives which are in the nucleus, and around this nucleus eight negative electrons revolve with inconceivable rapidity. A sulphur atom is believed to have a nu- cleus in which there are sixteen positive charges more than the negative electrons in it, and sixteen negative electrons revolving about this nucleus. Thus the scientists are actually counting the units of electricity that make up the atoms of the eighty- three elements known to exist. They have no doubt that the weight and combining power and all other qualities of these different elements are due entirely to the different number and arrangements of the THE MAKING OF MATTER units of electricity composing them. The atom is supposed to be spherical in shape. It may be described as a very porous electrical struc- ture which has a central nucleus positively charged, that is, it has more positive electrons than negative electrons. This nucleus is of exceedingly minute di- mensions, its diameter being not over a ten-thous- andth part of the diameter of the atom. The outer regions of the atoms have a number of negative elec- trons equal to about half the atomic weight, that is if the atomic weight of the oxygen be 16, there are 8 negative electrons in the outer region of the atom. There are but 83 known elements or species of atoms from the lightest, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. It is believed that some are yet to be dis- covered. These elements are built up one from the other by the successive additions of one and the same electrical element to the nucleus. Thus the hydro- gen atom and some electrons are in the nucleus of helium, the atom next in weight to hydrogen. The helium atom is found in the nucleus of the atom of radium and other radio-active elements and there is much reason to believe it to be present in the nu- cleus of the atoms of all the heavier elements. There is what is called an X-ray frequency char- acteristic of each of the elements. The square roots of these frequencies progress by equal steps from the lightest to the heaviest kind of atom. The discovery of the X-ray frequency of the various kinds of atoms has enabled the physicists to prove that there can be but 92 elements in existence from hydrogen to uran- ium inclusive. Recent researches in physics enable us to make the following statements. The positive electron is very much smaller but very much heavier than the negative. One positive charge weighs two thousand times as much as a negative electron. Thus most of 10 THE MAKING OF MATTER the weight or mass of the atom is in its positive charge. The diameter of a positive charge is esti- mated to be one ten-quadrillionth of an inch ; on ac- count of its exceeding smallness it is called a point charge. The diameter of the negative charge called the electron is eighteen hundred times as great as a positive electron or about one five-billionth of an inch. The atom is in size a hundred thousand times as large as a negative electron and a hundred and eighty million times as large as a positive electron. As the heaviest atoms contain only three or four hundred positive and negative electrons, it is mani- fest that most of the space within the atom is vacant. As has been stated, the outer part of the atom is made up entirely of negative electrons. The various atoms are grouped together to form molecules. Thus a large atom, oxygen, and two smaller ones, hydrogen, are grouped to form a mole- cule of water. It would require trillions upon tril- lions of molecules to make a drop of water. It is estimated that there are as many atoms in a drop of water as there are drops of water in the Mediter- ranean Sea. Twelve atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen and eleven of oxygen become a mole- cule of granulated sugar. It requires hundreds of millions of molecules of sugar to make one of the small crystals which we see. Though we now know that all the atoms are made of the positive and negative charges of electricity, we know nothing of the origin of the units of elec- tricity. Of the qualities of the unit of electricity we know only that it is sensitive to the presence of the other units, like units repelling, unlikes attracting each other, and that it will always choose the best conductor and the shortest distance offered it. As stated above, it is charged with a definite quantity of electric force, which has been accurately deter- THE MAKING OF MATTER 11 mined. This exploration of the atom and the meas- urement of its component element, the unit of elec- tricity, is perhaps the highest and most important achievement of man. The electron, i. e., the nega- tive unit, was discovered by Sir Joseph J. Thomson in 1898. There is much reason to believe that the atom is like a miniature solar system. The sun of the solar system is in the atom replaced by a nucleus in which there are both positive and negative units, the posi- tive being in excess, and around this nucleus nega- tive electrons revolve with almost infinite rapidity. Just as planets are forced to revolve around the sun by gravitation, so the negative electrons are forced by electrical tractation to revolve around the nucleus composed mainly of positive electrons; and just as the length of time required for the revolution of a planet around the sun is great or small according to its distance from the sun, so the distance of the nega- tive electrons from the positive nucleus determines the length of time of their revolution around it. As the distance of the ring of electrons from the nucleus of the atom is almost infinitely small, the length of time required for the electrons to go once around the orbit or ring is almost infinitely small. Thus the number of revolutions made by the negative elec- trons around the nucleus of the atom in a second is reckoned in trillions. It is now believed that the heavier atoms have several rings of electrons at dif- ferent distances from the nucleus. There are eight-three species of atoms. Four of these are radio-active and become transformed into nine other species. These atoms are arranged by the chemist in a table in the order of their weights, hydrogen being the lightest and uranium the heav- iest. If the weight of the oxygen be represented as 16, then hydrogen would weigh 1.008, helium 3.99, 12 THE MAKING OF MATTER lithium 6.94, glucinum 9.1, boron 11, carbon 12, nitrogen 14.01, and so on till the uranium is reached, whose weight is 238.5. These atomic weights must not be confused with the number of the atoms when they are arranged in series from lightest to heaviest. The mercury atom weighs just two hundred times as much as hydrogen, but its atomic number is 80. The atomic number increases as the number of positive charges in the nucleus exceed the number of electrons in the nucleus. As hydrogen has just one positive charge in the nucleus, its atomic number is 1. As helium has two positive charges in excess of negative electrons in its nucleus, it becomes num- ber 2, and so on till uranium is reached whose nu- cleus has ninety-two more positive charges in its nucleus than it has negative charges in its nucleus. Thus uranium has "atomic number" 92. According to this, hydrogen has one electron external to its nu- cleus, to neutralize the atom, helium has two exter- nal electrons and uranium has 92. As the chemical properties depend not on the weight but on the num- ber of external electrons, and this ''atomic number" depends on the excess of positive charges in the nu- cleus which are balanced by just that number of ex- ternal electrons the chemists find the arrangement of diflferent species of atoms according to atomic number a matter of great importance in their work. The meaning of atomic number may be more clearly understood by quoting the explanation set forth in the International Year Book for 1915 as follows: *'If the elements are written down in the order of ascending atomize weight, as is done in the ''periodic table," we assign to each element a number giving its position in this list. Hydrogen is No. 1, helium is No. 2, lithium 3, carbon 6, oxygen 8, etc. For short- ness this number is referred to as the "atomic num- ber" of the element. The nuclear charge of an atom THE MAKING OF MATTER 13 is supposed to be made up of positive charges and negative electrons, the sum of the positive charges exceeding the sum of the negative charges by an amount just equal to the atomic number. That is, the atomic number signifies the excess of the posi- tive charges of the nucleus. Since the atom is elec- trically neutral, there being the same number of units of positive as of negative electricity, the nu- cleus must be surrounded by a number of electrons equal to the atomic number. Among other proper- ties, the chemical valency of the atom is determined by the stability with which these outer electrons are bound to the nucleus. On this theory the excess positive charge (the algebraic sum of the charges) on the nucleus is the fundamental constant which de- termines the properties of the atom. This nuclear charge increases by one as we go from element to element." Sir Ernest Rutherford, who received the Nobel prize for chemistry in 1908, and who has perhaps done more than any other in the exploration of the atom states that : "Each atom has a central nucleus of extremely high potential which is surrounded by negative elec- trons whosj^ motion it controls. The electrons are controlled by the nucleus very much as the planets are held to the solar system by gravitation, and, in- deed^, there appears to be strong reason to suppose that the force involved is really inversely proportion- al to the square of the distance as in the case of gravitation. From this point of view, the various elements are characterized by the number of elec- trons in the atom. Each electron carries a single negative charge, and the nucleus carries as many positive charges as there are electrons to be con- trolled. 'It is possible to determine the number of positive 14 THE MAKING OF MATTER charges contained in each one of the elements from hydrogen to uranium (the lightest to the heaviest) and it seems also that if the elements are appropri- ately arranged the charges increase by unit steps, so that hydrogen contains a single positive charge and uranium 92." Rutherford's conception of the atom as ''purely electrical structures" was set forth by him in 1911. All experiments since have confirmed it in all essen- tial particulars. He conceived the atom to have **a massive charged core or nucleus of very small di- mensions surrounded by a cluster of electrons prob- ably in rapid motion which extend for distances from the center very great compared with the di- ameter of the nucleus. The positive electrons of the nucleus are very much smaller than the negative electrons balanced by them, the latter being eighteen hundred times as large as the former. The positive electron is so small that the group forming the nu- cleus of the atom is called a ''point charge." All the heavier atoms are believed to have a nucleus of posi- tive electrons and hydrogen atoms and this nucleus is surrounded by negative electrons in rapid motion, the nucleus having a diameter about one ten-thous- andth of the whole. They are purely electrical structures, their stability being due to the fact that the positive corpuscles hold the negative corpuscles in balance." It seems reasonable to suppose that originally the sijnplest and lightest elements were formed first and that the others were an evolution from them in the order of weight and complexity. According to this, when electrons would gravitate together to become the stars the hydrogen atoms would form first and then the helium. Then these would be bombarded by the free electrons about them, some of which would •be held in balance with hydrogen as a nucleus to THE MAKING OF MATTER 15 form oxygen and the rest. As a matter of fact the helium atom is found in the nucleus of the radium atom, helium being constantly thrown off as the ra- dium disintegrates. The elements observed to exist in the stars strikingly confirm this theory. The hot- test stars, those that shine with white light and that are supposed to be the youngest, are composed main- ly of hydrogen and helium atoms, the two lightest, while the^stars of least heat, those that shine with red light and that are supposed to be the oldest, con- tain the heaviest elements. As all the elements are multiples by weight of hydrogen, it seems reasonable to believe that they have hydrogen atoms as nuclei, and as many of them differ in weight by just the weight of the helium atom, it is reasonable to believe that these have helium, a remarkably stable atom, in their nuclei. As the temperature of the star de- creases a condition would exist that favors the stabil- ity of a group of electrons in which positive and negative force was equally balanced. If an atom of any one of the elements were to lose a sufficient number of electrons, it would become an atom of another element. Each radium atom, for instance, in disintegrating gives off both an atom of helium and an atom of niton. The radium has 226.4 for its atomic weight, which is the combined weight of helium 4 and of niton 222.4. Niton disintegrates so rapidly that in four days half of it has changed to other elements. Each atom of the niton loses an atom of helium and the residue loses another atom of helium. When this process has gone on five times an element comes into being so close to the atomic weight of lead 207.1, that it is supposed to be lead. It ceases to be radio-active. Sir J. J. Thomson, who is thought by many to be the greatest living physicist, is convinced that the properties of an element are determined by the ar- 16 THE MAKING OF MATTER rangements of the electrons. According to his view layers of electrons compose the atom just as layers make up the body of an onion. He says, (Romanes Lectures 1914) : 'The electrons in the outside layer will be held in their places less firmly than those in the inner lay- ers. They are mobile and will arrange themselves more easily under the forces exerted upon them by the atoms. As the force which one atom exerts on another depends 'on the arrangements of the elec- trons in the atom, the force which the neutral atom exerts on other atoms, what we may call the social qualities of the atom, will depend mainly on the outer belt of the electrons. Now these forces are the origin of chemical affinity, and of such physical phenomena as surface tension, cohesion, intrinsic pressure, viscosity, ionising power, in fact of by far the most important properties of the atom, and the most interesting part of the atom is the outside belt of electrons. As this belt will be pulled about and distorted by proximity of other atoms, we should ex- pect that the properties depending on the outer lay- er of the electrons would not be carried unchanged by an atom through all its compounds with other elements; they will depend on the kind of atom with which this atom is associated in these compounds; they will be what chemists call constitutive, and not intrinsic. On the other hand the electrons in the strata nearer the center of the atom will be much more firmly held; they will require the expenditure of much more work to remove them from the atom, and they will be but little affected by the presence of other atoms,, so that such properties that depend on these inner electrons will be carried unchanged by the atom into its chemical compound. The proper- ties of the real atoms are in accordance with these suggestions. By far the larger number of the prop- THE MAKING OF MATTER 17 erties of atoms are of the constitutive type which we have associated with the outer belt of electrons. There are, however, as we have seen, other proper- ties of the atom which are intrinsic to it; these we associate with the inner layer of electrons." The essential difference between metals and non- metals, and the reason that some elements are con- ductors of electricity, is that the metals and conduct- ors are composed of atoms that easily lose their elec- trons. The atoms of the metals have a weak attrac- tion for electrons which when not bound to the atoms move freely between the atoms, which are apart from each other. The metals and other conductors of electricity have ''molecules made up of such atoms that there might well be an evaporation of cor- puscles (the electrons) into the intramolecular spaces. We should then have these free corpuscles (the electrons) in addition to the bound ones inside the atoms." (Ames Constitution of Matter, p. 212.) It often happens that an atom will have an elec- tron added to it or an electron taken from it, and in this event the atom is called an ion, which means "going" or ''traveling," for these ions tend to go away from the surface of the metal or other sub- stance of which they are a part. If the atom has an electron added to it, it is called a positive ion. A negative ion and a positive ion attract each other, but like ions repel each other. Chemists tell us that it is easy to find how many atoms are contained in a given weight of any sub- stance. They can pass a certain quantity of elec- tricity in a liquid and it will deposit a certain amount of substance. As each unit of electricity will deposit an atom and the volume of the total de- posit can be measured, chemists can compute the number of atoms in a given volume. Another way is found in counting the helium atoms shot off from 18 THE MAKING OF MATTER radium. They make a fluorescence as they strike a surface coated with sulphide of zinc, and so they can be counted. The number striking in a given time may be computed and the gas collected during this time. Thus the number of atoms in a given volume of helium is accurately known. It is 77 billion bil- lion per cubic inch. There are several other methods of counting atoms and all give about the same re- sults. The discovery of radium and its qualities opened the way to the facts as to the structure of the atom. Radium is wasting itself away at the rate which will make it lose half its weight in two thousand years. Streams of electrons are flying from it at the veloc- ity of light. These are called beta rays. A stream of helium atoms is flying from it with a velocity about one-tenth that of light, but, as a helium atom weighs eight thousand times as much as an electron, streams of them, which are called alpha rays, have much greater energy than the beta rays. A single alpha particle from radium on striking sulphide of zinc will cause a spark which can be seen with a lens. In this way they may be counted. It is believed that the radium atoms are exploding and each breaking up into pieces, a helium and a ni- ton atom. The niton atom will also explode and give off another helium atom. The energy for these ex- plosions is within the atom, and for radium it has been estimated that it gives off for the radiation of a given quantity a fourth of a million times as much energy as would be obtained by burning an equal weight of coal. The electrons which compose the atom are as far apart compared with their size as are the planets of the solar system. Atoms are so porous that electrons from radium go straight through a sheet of metal one sixtieth part of an inch thick, and in doing this THE MAKING OF MATTER 19 they must penetrate the interior of more than a mil- lion of atoms. Comstock in his Nature of Matter and Electricity (1917) says that the atoms vary in size from one three-hundred millionth of an inch to one one-hun- dred-millionth of an inch, and that the electrons have a diameter about one one-hundred-thousandth of an atom. He also says that if the average atom be represented by a space one hundred yards in diam- eter, the electrons on the same scale would be about the size of a pin head. Its weight is one two-thous- andths that of a hydrogen atom. The electron is be- lieved to be spherical in shape, and all of them exact- ly alike. There are, however, as has been said, two kinds of electricities, the positive charges and the negative electrons, and as all things are composed of these units, it seems to be true that the attractions and re- pulsions of these electricities cause all of the phe- nomena of nature. A body is said to be charged with positive electricity when it has too few negative elec- trons to just balance the positives. When it has more electrons than positive charges it is said to be negatively charged. The positive electricity never leaves the atom, but the electrons on the outer re- gions of the atom may leave it, or more electrons may attach to an atom than is necessary to balance the positive charge, which is always in the nucleus of the atom. The positive charge is never found ex- cept inside an atom. When the electrons that are between the atoms of a metal are caused to move in the same direction in a wire we have what is known as an electric current. This current which contains an enormous number of electrons moves very slowly, perhaps only an inch a minute or a mile in seventeen hours. What is called the speed of electricity is an impulse which 20 THE MAKING OF MATTER travels with the speed of light, 186,300 miles in a second. This speed of electricity is due to the fact that the impulse is passed on very rapidly from elec- tron to electron, so that when the electrons at the near end of a wire are set moving those at the dis- tant end are caused to take up the motion a very small fraction of a second later, even though it be many hundred miles away. Thus, though the actual speed of the electrons is usually very slow, the rate of transmission of motion from electron to electron is very great. The action is closely similar to what follows where one end of a rope is pulled. The im- pulse which results in the movement of the other end travels with much greater speed than the rope itself. (Comstock op. cita.) As has been stated, the physicists now know the size of the atom and they have taken much pains to give a correct conception of it. Sir Ernest Ruther- ford, Sir Joseph J. Thomson, Sir William Thompson, Sir Oliver Lodge, Milliken, and all the greatest physicists of Great Britain and America and Ger- many and France estimate that the diameter of the atom is one one-hundred-millionth of an inch, and that if a drop of water were to be magnified to be the size of the eartb, it would be seen to be composed of atoms the size of baseballs. The number of atoms in a cubic centimeter (about a thimbleful) of helium gas at zero temperature and sea level pressure is known to be two hunded seventy five quadrillions. These facts indicate the size of an atom. The fact that it would require six septillion hydrogen atoms to weigh a gram (about one twenty-eighth of an ounce) should be sufficient to indicate its weight. Despite the inconceivable smallness of both the size and the weight of the atom the chemists have been able since 1808, now more than a century, to count the atoms as positively and accurately as a man using THE MAKING OF MATTER 21 bis ordinary senses can count grains of sand. Except in the few radio-active elements the atoms hold their electrons together so powerfully that the atoms seem to be permanent structures under the conditions now on the earth. At least there seems now no reason to believe that man can hope to dis- rupt the atom or make it behave as radium does. It is believed that atoms hold together in a mole- cule by electric attraction. When an atom with a negative charge is near an atom with a positive charge the two would rush together and cling to each other. For instance if hydrogen gas and chlorine gas are poured together in a vessel and heated they will combine suddenly and form a liquid hydro chlor- ine acid. The heat is supposed to detach some of the electrons from the atoms. As the chlorine atoms attract the electrons they become negatively charged and attract the hydrogen atoms, which have too few electrons. This is the cause of chemical affinity. Just as one atom is attracted by another of a dif- ferent species, probably because the one is positive- ly charged and the other negatively, to form mole- cules, so molecules attract. each other and cohere in large numbers to form the rocks and all the ob- jects about us. What is called the heat of a body is due to the ceaseless motion of the atoms composing it, the body becoming hotter as the atoms move faster. This vi- bration of the atoms is through a smaller distance in a solid than in a liquid, while in the gaseous state each atom flies in a straight line till it strikes an- other atom, usually traversing a distance a thousand times its own diameter. The more rapid the motion of the atoms or the molecules the warmer a body is. If the atoms cease to vibrate there is no heat, the condition of absolute zero, 273 degress C. below zero. 22 THE MAKING OF MATTER Though there is no friction between the atoms they lose energy by radiating the heat waves formed by their vibration. They may be made to vibrate faster or slower by the heat waves coming from sur- rounding objects. The friction of one body with an- other makes the molecules on the surface vibrate more violently and this causes waves that are more violent and thus the body becomes hotter. The work done in rubbing becomes the increased energy of the atoms. All bodies at ordinary temperature contain enor- mous quantities of heat and this can be converted in- to power. The heat is the energy of its vibrating atoms and electrons. It has been estimated that the heat in an ordinary glass of cold water would be sufficient energy or power to lift the whole glass a distance of thirty miles above the earth. (Comstock op. cita.) From R. A. Milliken, Professor of Physics, Uni- versity of Chicago (Popular Science Monthly, May, 1912,) we get a clear statement of what is now taught in physics as to the atom : "About 1900 a great stride forward was taken when electrical currents began to be looked upon as due to the transport through the wire of discrete units of electricity, now called electrons, these units being handed on from atom to atom or else being pushed along through the interstices between the atoms. ''The electrons are so small in volume and are separated from one another within the atom by so large spacer, that one of them can shoot through hundreds and thousands of atoms without hitting anything or doing anything whatever to these atoms. Its diameter is about one one-hundred-thousandth of the atom. The number which courses each second through the filament of a common 16 candle power THE MAKING OF MATTER 23 incandescent light is about a billion billion. The electron is thought by many reputable scientists of the present day to be the primordial thing out of which all matter is built up, so that from this point of view the different atoms of ordinary matter are meirely different groupings of these fundamental electric units. ''This kinetic theory of matter is merely the asser- tion that everything in this world of ours is in a state of restless, seething motion, that all matter is com- posed of minute parts called molecules, which are eternally pounding and jostling against one another. In gases these molecules are so far apart that the forces of attraction which exist between them are quite negligible and they dart hither and thither like gnats in a swarm, only with the stupendous speed of a mile a second (in the case of hydrogen) and rico- chet unceasingly one against another, and the walls of the containing vessel, producing by this bombard- ment all the familiar phenomena of pneumatic tires and gaseous bodies generally. If you could magnify the air in an ordinary room just a thousand million times, that is, to make a good-sized marrowfat pea swell to the size of the earth, you would see objects about as big as a football — we will not say what shape because we do not know anything about it, but they would probably be of the same shape in a given gas — and if the motions would stop long enough to enable us to get a snapshot of the whole situation, you would see on the average one of these objects in a cubical space ten feet on a side. Then if you let them go again, you would see these foot- balls shoot on the average through thirty such imagi- nary cubical rooms before it hit another. This dis- tance we call the mean free path of a gas molecule. 'Tn the liquid state the molecules are packed closely together by cohesive forces, yet they continu- 24 THE MAKING OF MATTER ally wiggle and squirm over and around one another, so that if you will be content this time with a ten mil- lion-fold magnification, the liquid would look very much like a mass of wriggling, squirming maggots — not a pretty picture, perhaps, but a fairly accurate one, I think. "In solids the molecules are in most part locked up tightly in crystalline forms so that their motions are reduced to mere trembling, unavailing protests against their imprisonment. If a biological analogy would make the picture more vivid, you can imagine the cages of a menagerie arranged in squares or other regular figures, while the caged animals pace restlessly to and fro between their bars." The vibrations of the electrons and atoms are known to cause waves of various length to traverse space, and these waves are known to be the cause of the heat and light and other phenomena of na- ture. For the last quarter of a century we have be- lieved that a substance called the ether of space per- meated every part of the universe and that with every oscillation of electrons or atom waves of ether were set up which traveled in every direction with the speed of light and which were radiated from the electron very much as waves of water radiate from a center when a stone strikes the surface of a lake. This is still generally believed to be true, but some leading scientists now hold that there is no ether and the electrons send out units of force, or "bullets of energy" of various lengths that cause heat, light, etc. They believe that "light and heat fall from the sun or elsewhere as raindrops from a cloud." Whether the ether wave theory or the "quanta" theory of separate units of light be true, it is certain that waves of various length are caused by the mo- tion of the electron to traverse space. The known waves are called the X-ray, gamma THE MAKING OF MATTER 25 rays, ultra violet rays, visible light rays giving the various colors, infra red rays, heat waves and the wireless telegraph waves. The X-rays are waves so short that they may penetrate between the atoms of the most solid bodies. Some of them are less than a ten millionth part of a millimeter (one millimeter equals one-twenty-fifth of an inch). It would re- quire hundreds of millions of X-rays to cover an inch. The gamma rays are the X-rays of short wave length given off by radium and the other radio-act- ive bodies. The ultra violet rays are many thousand times as long as some of the X-rays. Though invisi- ble to the eye, the ultra violet rays produce chemi- cal action and affect the photographic plate. The waves just longer than the ultra violet rays produce light ranging in length from about one one-hundred- thousandth of an inch which produces violet, to about two one-hundred-thousandths of an inch which pro- duces red. Just longer than these are the infra-red rays which convey radiant heat, but do not affect the eye. These infra-red rays and the light rays bring from the sun that stream of energy on which all life on the earth depends. The heat waves are just longer than the light rays and infra-red rays. The longest waves are those discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1888 and used for wireless telegraphy. They range in length from 3 millimeters to 10,000 meters. The length of the ether waves actually em- ployed in wireless telegraphy varies from a hundred yards to two miles. It will be seen from this that the longest waves known to us are more than a hundred trillion times as long as the shortest ones known to us. The shortest ones we use in our X-ray machines to see within opaque bodies; those many times longer give us light; those still longer give us heat and chemical effect. Comstock says (op. cita) : 'There seems to be no 26 tHE MAKING OF MATTER fundamental difference between light waves and the electric waves used in wireless telegraphy, except that the latter are very much longer and the vibra- tion very much slower than in the former case. Light waves and ''wireless" waves are thus related in the same way that a high pitched sound is related to one of low pitch," "Wireless" waves (i. e. **Hertz" waves) are al- ways produced by causing a charge of electricity to oscillate to and fro. According to the prevailing view waves are thus set up in the ether of space in a manner somewhat similar to the sound waves set by a vibrating bell. The radiant heat from the sun is also of the elec- tric-wave type of vibration, so that the sun must be considered a light and heat radiator because of the vast number of vibrating electrons which it con- tains. According to the modern wave theory, when- ever an electric charge, whether this charge be that of one electron or ma^iy, vibrates back and forth, it radiates electrical waves which go out and in all directions in space. If the oscillation is very slow they are called Hertzian waves. If the oscillation is more rapid they are in general heat waves, and if the vibration is still more rapid the waves are capable of affecting the retina of the eye, and they are called light waves. It is a generally accepted fact that all electric waves, whether they correspond to light, heat or Hertzian waves, travel with the same speed in empty space but with different speeds in material bodies. Thus we find the movement of the electrons cause all light and heat and energy and make up the atoms of the material bodies and that it is the mutual in- fluence of these electrons that causes all the forms of objects about us, for all these objects are but ag- gregations of atoms made up of and controlled by THE MAKING OF MATTER 27 electrons. As the higher animals are among the ob- jects made up of these electrons, their capacity to feel sensations would seem to indicate that the elec- trons have a quality from which the feeling of sen- sations is derived. If so, the electron is not alto- gether a material body, but a body with attributes that could be called spiritual or mental. Sir Francis Younghusband in his book. Mutual In- fluence, gives a graphic description of the nature of things which follow closely that set forth in our pre- ceding pages. He says: 'If with the eyes of the highest scientific author- ities, we look into the bottom of things and try to discover what they really are, we find them wholly different from what they seem. When we are stand- ing on a hard granite rock we seem to be on some- thing in the highest degree tangible, endurable, motionless, the very exemplar of all that is meant by solidity and immobility. And yet science shows that what seems so solid and immobile is, in reality, an aggregate of countless particles each of infinitesi- mal parvitude, and composed^ not, as we should think, of something hard and tangible, but, on the contrary, of what is entirely "immaterial," intangi- ble, imponderable, ethereal, and each circling with a velocity which would leave the fastest rifle bullet simply standing. We should find further that a piece of rock no larger than what we might take up between our fingers contains energy enough, if we only knew how to get at it, to drive the Mauretania several times across the Atlantic and back. The activity and the spontaneity of the activity, the en- ergy and the ''immateriality" of the final units of matter — ^these are the points that strike us. "The whole material world, so called, whether it be rocks or plants, our own bodies, or the most dis- tant stars, is all built up of atoms. And the atoms 28 THE MAKING OF MATTER had,, until recent years, been considered hard, solid, and unchangeable. But the experiments and re- searches of Sir Joseph Thomson and others have forced us to discard the old idea, and the atom is now believed to consist of a nucleus of positive electricity surrounded by a system of negative electrons prob- ably rotating in rings, a complex planetary system in which the negative electrons and the form of posi- tive electricity revolve about each other with enor- mous speed. ''Not the atom, therefore, but the electron is the ultimate particle of matter at which science has so far arrived. And these electrons are of a minute- ness beyond all possible conception. Even an atom is unimaginably minute, but an electron is a thous- andfold minuter still. Sir Oliver Lodge puts it down 1-10,000,000,000,000 of a centimeter. If the earth, he says, represented an electron, an atom would occupy a sphere with the sun as center and four times the distance of the earth as radius. ''The excessive minuteness is one point to notice about the electron; another is the tremendous speed at which it is incessantly revolving, a speed which would take it three or four times around the earth in a second. "But when we come to examine what the electron actually consists of, we find that it is no gritty, tangi- ble speck of matter, however minute, but is a disem- bodied charge of electricity without any material nucleus. It is simply a center of energy, or, as some physicist believe, a minute whirl or vortex analogous to a gyroscope in the bottom of that hypothetical ether which science assumes to be the fundamental element of the universe, which holds the whole to- gether and which forms the connecting medium be- tween every separate part, be it the remotest star on the confines of space or a minute electron. THE MAKING OF MATTER 29 *'But minute though these electrons are, and as small in comparison with a whole atom as a fly in a church, and few in number in each atom though they are, yet they are so exceedingly forceful and energetic, revolving round and round with such stu- pendous velocity as to give the impression that the atom is a solid incompressible body. So it is these energetic little particles which, in their mutual re- lations, constitute what we call the atom of matter. They give it its inertia ; they enable it to cling on to others which come within short range, with the force which we call cohesion ; and by the excess or defect of one or more constituents they exhibit chemical properties and attach themselves with vigor to others in like or rather opposite case. ''Such are the ultimate particles of matter of which the whole universe is composed. Of these immaterial vortices or centers of energy are built up the thousand million stars, the sun, the planets, this earth and all that is upon it, the plants, the animals, and all of us men, the lowest and the highest. We and all things else are made of these electrons formed into atoms, of these atoms formed into groups, of these groups made up into systems, of systems of systems, and so on. And electrons of all the elements and in every part of the universe are precisely and exactly like each other. "Two points in this examination of the fundamen- tal constituents of which the universe is built up have to be particularly observed: firstly, their im- materiality, and secondly, their mobility. Even if we were able with some marvelous microscope act- ually to see an electron, and if we had the means of taking one up between our fingers and of touching it and feeling it, we should find that it utterly evaded both our sight and touch, because of its ''immater- iality," because it is nothing hard, solid, and tangi- 30 THE MAKING OF MATTER ble, however minute it might be, but simply a vortex of imponderable ether, a mere center of energy. And what ether is, and what energy is, beyond mere convenient expressions, no man can yet say. "Their '"immateriality" is the first point to note about the fundamental units of matter, and the sec- ond is their mobility. They are never at rest. They are in incessant motion. And the speed with which they move is literally lightning speed, a rapidity which would take them around the earth in less than half a second. With this tremendous velocity they revolve round and round the atom, and when they are free, as in the emissions from radium, they dart through space with the same lightning speed. "'Science affirms that all particles of matter act as they do because of, and in virtue of, certain proper- ties with which they are themselves endowed. They are self-active, and within specific limits they may be said to act of their own free will. It is difficult to re- gard even the simplest particle of matter as any- thing less than spiritual, for scientific men are driven to use such terms as "'behavior," "mutual influence," implying something of spirit even in the fundamental units i mattei.'' T. C. Chamberlin in The Origin of the Earth (1916) p. 243, says: "What we conveniently regard as merely material is at the same time spiritual ; what we try to reduce to the mechanistic is at the same time volitional. The emergence of the living from the organic, the psychic from the physiologic, are features of the earth's evolution." The author has tried in the foregoing pages to pre- sent the results of research as to the structure of the atoms of which all objects are composed. As has been seen, these results have made it clear that all the universe is built of electricity, that the electric THE MAKING OF MATTER 31 unit is the building stone of which all objects in the heavens and the earth are made, that the electric unit is the only thing that endures throughout all time, "Unhurt amid the war of elements, The wreck of matter and the crush of worlds." The results of research also show that this one element moves in units of force, the positive and the negative, and that it is the mutual influence of these units that causes all the changes and creates all the objects in the universe. This being the fact, it is reasonable to believe that God, the creative power, who fills all space and is the source of all things, lives and moves in the nature of electric units from whose activities are derived all the forms of matter and all the phases of thought, all matter and all mind. Though we know but little of the nature of the electron, the building stone of all the atoms, we do know that it fills a fixed quantity of space with a fixed quantity of force that is sensitive and self act- ive. As sensitivity and self activity are character- istics of mind we may conclude that matter is com- posed of particles which are at once material and mental, and that the mind of animals is due to the activities of a body which is composed of spiritual units. The flesh which is seen is in this view com- posed of units of sensitive force which are unseen. Just as a loom might be constructed in all its parts of cotton and from cotton threads produce various kinds of cloth that are also cotton, so the brain may be composed of particles which are mental and from mental threads produce various kinds of sensations and ideas, which are also mental. If we could but know all the qualities of the electrons we might dis- cover its motion to be due to its mental or spiritual 32 THE MAKING OF MATTER nature, just as we know our bodies are moved by the actions of our minds. We know that the motion of the body is the result of the activity of our mind. It may be so with the motion of the electrons. It may be that our minds can see matter because matter is made of the same qualities as compose mind. A universal sensitivity of which the attractions and re- pulsions of the electrons give us but a glimpse and which is beyond our powers to comprehend, may be that from which all minds are developed. Though the mind of man must, in this view, have its source in the Creative power, it is but human van- ity to assume that the mind of man can comprehend God to perfection. Just as the white light compre- hends in its nature all the individual colors and tints which shine through a glass prism, so the Eternal Mind comprehends in its nature all the individual sensations and thoughts which are experienced by a human body. Just as it is impossible for the yellow color to include the w^hite light, so it is impossible for the mind of man to comprehend the Eternal Mind. It is, however, a reasonable faith that man is one of the children of God, if we mean by that to say that in the mind of man we see revealed a phase of the Creative Power. THE MAKING OF MATTER 33 The Universe Our sun and its planets seem to be near the center of a universe of myriads of stars, of which only four thousand are visible to the naked eye. The stars are called ''fixed stars," for they are the same that studded the heavens in the days of Homer, v^ho de- scribes a number of them. Job wrote of the Pleiades and the bands of Orion, which no doubt were nearly as resplendent then as they are today. Even to primitive man a hundred thousand years ago these fixed stars were nearly the same in place and power as they are today. Astronomers generally believe the number of stars to be not infinitely great, but of the order of two thousand millions, or approximately the same as the number of human beings now living. We know that each of these twinkling stars is a sun like that which warms our world. Many of these stars glow with a heat far more intense than our sun, which, it is in- teresting to note, is about 6,000 degrees centigrade and warms our earth with a constant heat that equals two calories a minute on each square centimeter of its surface. We know the diameter of only a few of thte stars and these vary from one million miles to ten million miles. As the sun's diameter is 866,000 miles it must be one of the smallest stars. Yet if the sun were a hollow ball it would hold more than a million balls the size of the earth. The total number of stars visible in our largest telescope is about seventy millions, but the number which can be recorded on photographic plates by means of long exposures with our largest reflecting telescope is many times as great. The result is ob- tained by photographing small squares of the night 34 THE MAKING OF MATTER From photograph in Comstock's Astronomy. — D. Appleton & Co. The nebula in the constellation Andromeda seen above is in width five hundred tliousand times the distance of the earth from the sun. It would require eight years for light to travel across it traveling as it does, at the rateof eleven million miles a minute. It is barely visible to the naked eye, to which it ap- pears to be a small vviiite glowing mass; butas seen through a telescope it is a vast luminous whirlpool of glowing matter in which certain places are thickened and rounded. We can see a large central mass and other thickened rounded places of smaller size, which by gravitation must draw into themselves all the matter now in the spaces between them. This matter in the space between would aggregate into small bodies, which would fall into the large central mass or into the other large masses. The central mass would thus become a sun, as the other large masses would become other suns. The white dots in the photograph are stars. The lightfrom this nebula broken by the spectroscope shows that the matter of the nebula is the same as that found in our sun and earth, hydrogen, helium, etc. THE MAKING OF MATTER 35 sky, carefully measured, and then counting the stars that the photographic plate shows within some of the squares that appear to contain about the aver- age number. The star nearest to us. Alpha Centauri, is twenty-five trillion (25,000,000,000,000) miles from us. It requires four and a half years for light to travel that distance. The stars are crowded toward the plane of the Milky Way. Looking from our position near the center toward the rim of this vast circular plate of space, that is toward the region of the Milky Way, we find in our telescope myriads of stars, and the Milky Way itself in powerful telescopes is resolved into a throng of separate stars. Looking in a line perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way, and toward the axis of this circular plate of space, we find far fewer stars and apparently all of them near enough to be descried by our telescopes. The universe of stars — our stellar system — is be- lieved by the students of the subject, all but unani- mously, to occupy a limited volume of space that is somewhat the shape of a very flat pocket watch, or more strictly, a much flattened spheroid. However, it is not intended to convey the impression that the boundaries of the stellar system are sharply defined or that the stars are uniformly distributed through- out the spheroid, and all at once, at the surface of the spheroid, cease to exist, but only that the stars are more or less irregularly distributed throughout a volume of space roughly spheroidal in form, and that the thinning out of the stars near the confines of the system may be quite gradual and irregular. The equatorial plane of the spheroid is coincident with the central plane of the Milky Way. We see the Milky Way as a bright band encircling the sky, because in looking toward the Milky Way we are looking out through the greatest depth of stars. 36 THE MAKING OF MATTER The portion of space in which stars are known to exist is estimated to be 3,000 light-years (18 quadril lion miles) in thickness, that is in a direction perpen- dicular to the plane of the Milky Way, while the diameter of the spheroid, that is, the plane of the Milky Way, is probably at least ten times that dis- tance. 'To bring down the dimensions of the universe to finite comprehension, we must divide the scale of nature by a thousand million. Then the earth would be represented by a pebble half an inch in diameter, circling once a year about a sun 4.5 feet in diameter, at a distance of 500 feet. The nearest star, a Cen- tauri, would on this scale be seen as two spheres re- volving about each at a distance apart equal to two miles, and each comparable in size to the sun. This double star would be situated at a distance of about 25,000 miles from our planetary system with its sun, but the other stars in this part of the stellar system would be separated from each other on the average by more than twice this distance. The Galaxy or Milky Way, is the cloudlike zone of faint stars which extends as a belt around the sky. The stars in it ap- pear faint and close together because of their re- moteness. They seem to constitute the outer zone of our stellar system, and its dimensions are only vaguely known. On this diminutive scale, dividing the scale of nature by a hundred million, the Milky Way might be found to be encompassed by a circle of a hundred million miles diameter or it might be more or less." (Joseph Barrill in the Origin of the Earth.) With the telescope we find in the heavens no less than 450,000 nebulae, cloudlike masses of glowing matter. Many of these show spiral forms. It is be- lieved that some of these are leading to the forma- tion of suns and planets that will become solar sys- THE MAKING OF MATTER 37 terns like our own; others are believed to be light from other systems of millions of stars like the sys- tem of which our sun is a star. Says Dr. W. W. Campbell of Lick Observatory in the Scientific Monthly of October, 1915: 'The gen- eral course of the evolutionary process as applied to the principal classes of celestial bodies is thought to be fairly well known. The large irregular nebulae, such as the great nebula in the Orion, are thought to represent the earliest form of inorganic life known to us. The material appears to be in a chaotic state. There is no suggestion of order or system. The spectroscope shows that in many cases the substance consists of glowing gases or vapors, but whether they are glowing from the incandescence resulting from high temperature, or electrical condition, or otherwise, is unknown, though heat origin of their light is the simplest hypothesis now available. Whether such nebulae are originally hot or cold, we must believe that they are endowed with gravita- tional power, and that their molecules or particles are, or ultimately will be, in motion. It will happen that there are regions of greater density, or nuclei, here and there throughout the structure which will act as centers of condensation, drawing surrounding material into combination with them. The process of growth from nuclei originally small to volumes and masses ultimately stupendous must be slow at first, relatively more rapid after the masses have grown to moderate dimensions and the supplies of outlying material are still plentiful, and again slow after the supplies have been largely exhausted. By virtue of motions prevailing within the original nebu- lar structure or because of inrushing materials which strike central masses, not centrally but obliquely, low rotations of the condensed nebulous masses will occur. Stupendous quantities of heat will be gener- 38 THE MAKING OF MATTER ated in the b^uilding-up process. This heat will radi- ate into space because the gaseous masses are highly rarefied and their radiating surfaces are large in pro- portion to the masses. With loss of heat the nebul- ous masses will contract in volume and gradually assume forms more spherical. When the forms be- come approximately spherical, the first stage of stellar life may be said to have been reached." "Speaking somewhat loosely, I think that we may say that the processes of evolution from an extended nebula to a condensed nebula and from the latter to a spherical star, are comparatively rapid, perhaps normally confined to a few tens of millions of years, but the farther we proceed in the development pro- cess, from the blue star to the yellow and possibly but not certainly on to the red star, the slower, is the progress made, for the radiating surface through which all energy from the interior must pass becomes smaller and smaller in proportion to the mass, and the connection currents which carry the heat from the interior to the surface must slow down in speed." There is now no doubt that our sun, which is one of the stars, came into being as described by the astronomer in the preceding paragraph. It is now believed that our earth and the other planets came into being by the condensation of glowing masses which were taken from the sun by the gravitational pull of some other star which once, probably billions of years ago, passed near the sun. The earth grew to its present size by pulling to itself the other mat- ter in and near its orbit around the sun. Its surface, once molten by the infall of the smaller bodies, grad- ually cooled, water formed and covered it, basins now filled by the oceans formed by the uneven con- traction of its rocky surface, and in the fullness of time the earliest simplest forms of living things came into existence. It is estimated by geologists that THE MAKING OF MATTER 39 hundreds of millions of years have elapsed since the first living thing came into being. There are now living five hundred thousand species of plants and six hundred thousand species of animals, all made of matter similar in every way to that which com- poses the earth, the sun, and the stars. The Making of the Heavens Matter has been shown to be composed of atoms. These are made up of electrons, and they are aggre- gated mainly in those immense masses known as the suns, the planets and the stars. We know that the matter of earth and star is made up of the same ele- ments, oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, iron, etc. There are eighty-three known elements. As a matter of fact many of the elements of the earth have been positively identified in the glowing atmosphere of the sun and stars. This fact we have learned from the spectroscope. By the use of this instrument and the telescope, the largest of which magnifies 3000- fold the power of the eye to see distant objects, by the use of the photographic plate, which detects light far fainter than the eye can feel, we have dis- covered facts of great value to those who wish to understand the constitution of the universe. We have found the size and weight of the earth. The size we all know. The weight, which is six sex- tillion tons, is not so well known. It is about 5.5 times that of a similar globe composed entirely of water. We have found the distance of the earth from the sun within certain limits of accuracy that cannot be disputed. This is about ninety-three mil- lion miles. With these, the weight and size of the The Planets on the Surface of the Sun, Showing the Relative Sizes of Sun and Planets. The black band represents a belt across the Sun, whose diameter is 865,000 miles. If the Sun were a hollow sphere it would hold more than a million spheres the size of the Earth. From Lessons in Physical Geography, ComjyiQht 1901, 1916, by Charles R. Dryer, American Book Company, Puhlisliers, 4 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS earth and its distance from the sun, as our pound and yard stick, we have been able to weigh and measure the sun, moon, planets, stars and comets of the universe, and determine their distances apart, and we have been able to predict the coming events in the heavens with a high degree of accuracy. An eclipse of our sun and moon, even an eclipse of a moon on far away Jupiter, always comes within a few seconds as predicted. Our solar system is composed of a sun with eight planets revolving around it from west to east. These planets in the order that we meet them in going from the sun and the time of their revolutions around the sun are as follows: Mercury in 88 days, Venus in 225 days. Earth with one moon in 1 year. Mars with two moons in 1.9 years, Jupiter with nine moons in 12 years, Saturn with its rings and nine moons in 29 V2 years, Uranus with four moons in 84 years, Neptune with one moon in 165 years. Mercury is but little more than one-third the earth's diameter. Venus is a little smaller than the earth. The diameter of Mars is a little more than one-half that of the earth. The diameter of Jupiter is eleven times that of the earth, Satnirn nine times and Uranus four times, and Neptune a little over four times. The four outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, contain 225 times as much material as the four inner planets. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Between Mars and Jupiter we iind what we call minor planets or asteroids, of which more than eight hundred have already been discovered. These asteroids revolve around the sun, some in one and three-fourth years, others in eight years, owing to their varying distances from the sun. The largest of them is not more than 450 miles in diameter, but it has on rare occasions been visible to the naked eye. Its name is Vesta. If all the mater- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 5 ial in the planetoids were gathered together and weighed the total mass would not be one three- thousandths as much as the earth. Mercury, Venus and Mars are mainly solid, but it is believed that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Nep- tune are in a fluid state. They will probably evolve into a viscous condition on their outer strata and then into solid and elastic bodies like our earth. All the planets and planetoids in revolving from west to east revolve so nearly in the same plane that if we had a great box whose diameter is sixty times the distance of the earth from the sun and whose thickness is equal to this distance it would hold the entire solar system. All the planets would stay within the box as they travel around the sun. It helps us to realize that our solar system is complete- ly isolated when we learn that the star nearest to us is at a distance from us equal to 275,000 times the distance of the earth from the sun. It is interesting to observe that our moon always keeps the same side of hemisphere turned toward us, a fact due to its rotating on its axis in exactly the same time required for its revolution around the earth. Our moon has what is called its "librations" which push its surface a degree or two more or less than a full revolution on its axis. There is some evi- dence that Mercury and Venus keep the same hemis- pheres always turned to the sun, their day being the same length as their year. One of the planets, Saturn, difl^ers from all the others in that it has a system of rings around it un- like anything that the telescope reveals elsewhere in the universe. The outer ring is about 175,000 miles in diameter and all are very thin, probably not over 75 miles thick. There are several of the rings, one within the other like hoops of different sizes. Professor Keeler proved by means of the spectroscope that these rings are composed of myr- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS iads of tiny particles revolving about the planet like moons and all crovi^ded together so closely they seem like a continuous veil to the telescopic observer. Aside from the rings Saturn has nine moons, one of these, Mimas, only 50,000 miles from the planet, an- other, Phoebe, is 8,000,000 miles away. Saturn as seen in a high power telescope has exceeding beauty and interest. The following table presents the diameter, dis- tance from the sun, inclination of axis to plane of orbit, time of rotation, time of revolution, density compared with that of the earth, and number of moons of each of the planets: Distance Degree of Time of Time of Density ^7. Planet Diameter in Miles from Sun inMillions Inclina- tion of Rotation Revolution Around Comp'd with ?3 of Miles Axis on Axis the Sun Water 9 S Mercury 3,020 36 88 Days 88 Days Venus 7,700 67.2 225 Days 225 Days 4.8 Earth 7,920 93 23.5 23 hrs., 56 min. 365 1-4 Days 5.58 1 Mars 4,230 141.5 25 24hrs., 37 min. 687 Days 4.01 2 Jupiter 87,000 483.3 Small 9 hrs., 55 min. 1 1 7-8 Yrs. 1.33 9 Saturn 73,000 886 25 10 hrs., 13 min. 29)^ Years .72 9 Uranus 31,900 1.782 Large Unknown 84 Years L22 4 Neptune 34,800 2,790 Large Unknown 165 Years 1.11 1 Neptune, the outermost planet, is about thirty times as far from the sun as the earth is. It is always so far from the earth that it is never visible to the naked eye. Uranus, which is next to Neptune, is visible to the naked eye only when nearest to the earth and then under the very best conditions, and even- then it is exceedingly faint. Uranus was not discovered to be a planet till 1781. Neptune was not discovered till 1846. Because of these facts the an- cient Babylonians, from whom we derive our divis- ions of time into hours and minutes, knew only of five planets besides the earth. Because these and THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS the sun and moon were the only ones of the heavenly bodies except the comets that changed their pos- itions, the powers of gods were ascribed to them. They were thought to control the destinies of men, and sacrifice and other forms of worship were made to them. A day was set by the ancients for worship- ing the sun (Sunday), a day of worshiping the moon (Monday), a day to each of the five planets, as Sat- urn day (Saturday). This made the worship of the sun and all the rest recur every seven days. Inscrip- tions found in many places in Babylonia and Assyria show that this custom was in vogue in those countries at the dawn of recorded human history. A similar custom prevailed in Egypt. The sun is a globe 865,000 miles in diameter. It weighs 744 times as much as all the planets, moons and asteroids combined. It contains ninety-nine and six-seventh percent, of all the material in the entire solar system. Its bulk is such that if it were a hollow shell more than a million earths could be put inside it and there would still be empty spaces between the earthen ballp. It weighs, however, only three hundred twenty-nine thousand times as much as the earth and its moon combined, because it is in a gaseous state due to its intense heat and weighs in proportion to its bulk only one-fourth as much as the earth. It revolves upon its axis as the eai-th does, but it takes twenty-five days instead of twenty-four hours. Its light traveling at the rate of 186.000 miles per second takes eight minutes to reach us. We see the sun, therefore, not as it is at the moment we look, but as it was eight minutes earlier. The sun is made of the same materials as the earth, but they are all melted and above their boiling point and therefore in a state of gas or vapor. The earth has enough material in it to make by weight eighty-one moons like the one it has. 8 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS Jupiter, the largest of the planets, is thirteen hund- red times as large as the earth, but it weighs only three hundred times as much. The distance of the planets apart may be realized from the facts men- tioned that despite their great size Uranus is only rarely visible to the naked eye and Neptune is far beyond our naked eye vision, and that traveling at the rate of a mile a minute we would require five thouand years to go from the earth to Neptune. We would reach Jupiter in seven hundred years at the same rate of traveling. Mars the planet next to the earth is fifty million miles away when nearest to us. It is now believed that all the material which com- poses the planets and their moons and the asteroids and comets was once a part of the sun, which had come into existence by the gathering together of the matter of a primal nebula similar to those now to be seen in many parts of space. The sun thus formed was, it is now believed, at some later stage "dis- rupted through the tidal forces produced by the close approach and passage of another star. The result was a secondary nebula, but one essentially unlike the primary. The secondary nebula was de- veloped in a plane and initially possessed a spiral form with the sun at its center. All of its parts moved with freedom in elliptic orbits. The nebula contained only a minute fraction of the solar matter, but was endowed by the passing star with a great rotational energy." "The sun is occasionally observed to shoot out streams of gas, known as solar prominences, to heights of nearly 300,000 miles, and at velocities ranging up to 300 miles per second. Such phenom- ena indicate the enormous elastic and explosive energy resident in the sun's interior, an expansive potency held in restraint by the equally prodigious power of the sun's gravity." THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 9 "Supposing then that the ancestral sun was sub- jected to tidal disruption by the approach of another and possibly much more massive star, it remains to be seen how the nebula resulting from tidal disrup- tion can become the embryo of an orderly planetary system. If the matter were shot out from great depths in the sun by its normal expansive forces, the velocity of departure might rise high above the ob- served velocities of 300 miles per second. If 400 miles or more, the gravitative attraction of the sun could then never reclaim that matter, because the decrease in the outward velocity due to the sun's attraction would never bring the velocity down to zero, and could therefore never reverse the motion of the escaping matter and bring it back to the sun." ''But some or possibly all, of the matter of the ex- ploded sun may have had lesser velocities of escape and would consequently remain within its gravita- tive control. In so far as it was not deflected side- ways by some extraneous force, it would fall back in the sun as the water of a geyser falls back into its pool. But the gravitative pull of the passing star would serve as such an extraneous force, analogous to the wind which blows part of the geyser water, as it rises and falls, to one side of the basin. The matter shot out toward the passing star would be at- tracted sideways after it as the star receded into space. On falling back toward the sun it would consequently pass to one side and elliptical orbits of the separate particles would become established." ''The matter which has converged into the planets would be that residue of the solar tidal disruption which did not pass beyond gravitative control and did not fall back into the body of the sun. This residue is only a very small fraction of the sun's mass, 1-745. It would appear, however, that the solar disruption was very great in order to give an 10 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS axial revolution to the reaggregated matter forming the present sun, so that its equator should be, as ob- served, only seven degrees from the mean plane of all of the planetary orbits. The present revolution of the sun is probably due to the whirl produced during tidal disruption and not to an axial rotation belonging to the sun before the event took place." ''This brings us to the final stage in the evolution of the planets according to the planetesimal hy- pothesis. In the arms of the spiral nebula were knots or nuclei of matter constituting the cores of the planets. Four small knots, the earth-moon knot being a double one, represented the beginnings of the four smaller inner planets. In the zone of the planetoids there was, however, no dominating nu- cleus, and they have therefore rem.ained to this day largely in the planetesimal stage. Four greater nu- clei beyond were the beginnings of the major plan- ets. Smaller nuclei associated with the larger marked the presence of satellites." "The orbits of the planetary nuclei and of the scattered planetesimal swarm were highly eccentric, having the form of a tangle of ellipses of all forms and sizes but lying in nearly a common plane and with a common direction of revolution about the central body. Collisions would inevitably occur at the crossing of the paths in the course of numberless revolutions and the nuclei would have suflScient mass and consequent gravitative power to retain the matter colliding with them. In this way, each planet would in the course of time clear up an orbital zone. An axial revolution would arise in the same direction as the orbital revolution, and the incorpor- ation of all the planetesimals would cause the eccen- tricities to cancel out, giving to the whole mass a nearly circular instead of a highly elliptical orbit. This would lead us to believe that the original nu- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 11 cleus was but a small part of the completed planet." 'Indications point to the conclusion that the earth was molten at the completion of its growth. A molten state suggests a rapid earth growth due to an original clustering of the matter whose converg- ence built up the planet. Larger nuclei hundreds of miles in diameter and smaller ones falling into the earth led to a development of energy of impact suf- ficient to produce in the growing earth a molten state, at least in the outer portions. The earth kept growing at the same time by sweeping up large quantities of finer material, but the molten state suggests that the greater growth was due to the in- fall of the larger nuclei." (BarrelFs The Origin of the Earth.) In addition to the planets and their satellites and the asteroids there also revolve around the sun the comets and the meteors and the material that makes the zodiacal light. The latter is an illumination easily visible after sunset in the west and before sun- rise in the east and is caused by the scattering of the sun's rays by grains of dust and other small bodies of matter, each a' minute planet revolving around the sun. The material which makes the light is dis- tributed through a great volume of space somewhat the shape of a double convex lens whose center co- incides with the sun and whose edge extends out as far as the earth's orbit. The comets also pass around the sun, but in very elongated orbits, their tails pointing away from the sun, and when a comet comes near the earth it appears to be a star carrying a banner of light. The material making the meteors, which often suddenly flash across the sky leaving a transient trail of light, also revolves around the sun in elliptic orbits. Millions of these meteors strike against our atmosphere every twenty-four hours and are vaporized by the heat developed by the friction 12 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS due to their tremendous velocity. A few of them are so large that they get through our atmosphere to the earth's surface and when found they are often as objects of great interest taken to the museums. It is interesting to know that of the 83 elements found on earth 25 of them have been found in meteorites. We have not found anything in the meteorites not found existing on earth by our chemists. There is, says Dr. Wallace Campbell of Lick Ob- servatory, '*a close connection between meteors and comets. It may be that all meteoric matter has come from the disintegration of comets. The head of a comet consists principally of separate small bodies. As repeated returns to the sun separates these bod- ies farther and farther apart, the comet of which they were once individual constituents will totally disappear, and when the earth is near the orbit of Comets' Tails Lag Beliind the Line Joining the Sun (S) and the Comets' Kiiclei. Orbital Motion is Canning the Nucleus of the Comet to the Right. Scientific Monthly. December, 1916- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 13 these individual bodies some of them will fall as meteors upon it." '*We know that there are certain nights of the year when we see a very large number of meteors which come from certain directions in space. There are five streams of these meteors and we know that they coincide with the orbits of five periodic comets that have ceased to appear. Clearly the cometary materials have been gradually scattered by the dis- integrating effect of the sun's attraction, and the separate particles were compelled to move in orbits differing slightly from each other and from the rec- ognized orbit of the comets. The meteoric collisions with the earth are such as to show that we are deal- ing with widely separated small masses moving in orbits nearly identical with each other." The peri- odic meteors are believed to be the debris of ancient but now disintegrated comets whose material has become distributed around their orbits. When the earth approaches near this orbit of scattered mater- ial meteors fall into it. The comets were once thought to be visitants from interstellar space to our solar system whose gravita- tional pull held some of them to be permanent mem- bers of our solar system, while others escaped to their homes among the stars. It is now believed probable that they have their origin in the scattered material within and beyond Neptune that yet re- mains of the nebulous material from which the sun and planets were composed. This material revolves around the sun and is being dragged through space by the sun just as the planets are. Individual bodies of this scatered material beyond Neptune are drawn together by gravitation and their repeated collisions will produce incandescent gas around a nucleus. This would revolve in its own orbit around the sun and the incandescent gas would be driven by light 14 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS and heat and waves from the sun to become the flaming tail. It has been proved that waves of light repel any surface they strike. Though this push is exceedingly small it is sufficient to drive matter as tenuous and light as that in a comet's tail. Hydro- gen, nitrogen, sodium and other elements found on the earth have been proved by the spectroscope to be also in comets. There are four hundred comets whose orbits are known and whose coming may be predicted with certainty. There are sixty comets with periods of less than one hundred years. There are thirty of these whose farthest distance from the sun is now near the orbit of Jupiter, and from this fact they are called the Jupiter family. These have periods be- tween three and nine years. For a similar reason two of the comets are called Saturn comets, three Uranus comets, and six Neptune comets, one of the latter being Halley's, whose time of revolution is seventy-six years. All the Neptune comets have periods from sixty to eighty-one years. These com- ets revolve around the sun in a plane closely coincid- ing with that of the planets and most of them travel from west to east as the planets do. It is these short period planets that are being gradually destroyed by the sun's power to pull apart the constituent small bodies forming their heads. ^ With each visit near the sun the intensity of the comet's light is reduced and in the course of time the comet will cease to be. The long distance comets spend most of their time mov- ing slowly in the space far beyond Neptune but with- in the gravitational pull of the sun. The comets, all of them, are, therefore, as much members of the solar system as the earth is. They have originated in the outer parts of a rotating mass that has devel- oped into the solar system. Dr. Campbell gives the following account of their origin: (Sc. Monthly, Dec. 1916.) THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 15 **We discover only a certain proportion of the comets which come close to the sun and the earth. The numbers which course through the planetary system and remain undiscovered by the observers on the earth must be exceedingly great. The supply of the planetary material in the remote outskirts of the planetary system must be enormous. This ma- terial is probably in the nature of remnants of the nebula or other mass of matter from which the sun, its planets and their moons developed. This idea is to a certain extent speculative, but that the cometary material is now out there in abundance we cannot doubt. Much of it naturally consists of matter in the solid state, and the sun's attraction at that great distance being almost zero, neighboring masses could slowly come together as a collection of small solid masses, such as seem to compose the nucleus of a comet. Such a nucleus could attract and attach to itself any dust particles and molecules coming within the sphere of its attraction. These might well, and probably would, include a collection of finely divided matter that had already been driven off in the tails of comets which in earlier ages had visited the sun. The materials thus collected would be attracted by the sun, a few of the collections would eventually pass comparatively close to the sun, a few of the latter would be discovered as comets and a part of the finely divided material contained in them would be driven off again as comet's tails into space, possi- bly to return many times in the bodies of comets coming later in the sun's neighborhood. Certain of the bodies would come so close to planets as to have their orbits tansformed from very long ellipses to very short ellipses. These comets would be disinte- grated and their materials be widely scattered. We have seen that the earth has collided with such ma- terials, and the earth is growing slowly, very slowly 16 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS through the deposition of the remains upon its sur- face. Probably a little of the same material goes likewise to other planets of the solar system and adds slowly to their masses. However, an insignifi- cant proportion of the materials scattered in this manner through the solar system is thus accounted for, and the remainder doubtless revolves around the sun in ellipses, probably contributing its share of reflected sunlight to the faint glow near the sun known as the zodiacal light." Miiky Way in Constellation Cygnus Near the Star Gamma, pfiotogi-aphed by Prof. Barnard witli the 10-inch Bruce Camera of the Yerkes Observatory. Pojjiildf Scienct; Monthly, Scpfnnhfr, 1915. THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 17 Our sun and its planets seem to be near the center of a universe of myriads of stars, of which only four thousand are visible to the naked eye. The stars are called ''fixed stars," for they are the same that stud- ded the heavens in the days of Homer, who describes a number of them. Job wrote of the Pleiades and the bands of Orion, which nb doubt was nearly as resplendent then as they are today. Even to primi- tive man hundreds of thousands of years ago these fixed stars were nearly the same in place and power as they are today. Over two thousand years ago Hipparchus, the Greek, made a catalog of a thous- and stars and described them, their position, bright- ness, color, etc. This has been preserved in the Ara- bian Almagest, and the description there made is nearly true of them today. Beyond these few thousand stars which meet our gaze every cloudless night, and which met the gaze of Homer and Job and primitive men, there are hundreds of millions of other stars within the range of our telescopes. Astronomers generally believe the number of stars to be not infinitely great, but of the order of two thousand millions, or approximately the same as the number of human beings now living. We know that each of these twinkling stars is a sun like that which warms our world. Many of these stars glow with a heat far more intense than our sun, which, it is in- teresting to note, is about 6,000 degrees centigrade and warms our earth with a constant heat that equals two calories a minute on each square centi- meter of its surface. We know the diameter of only a few of the stars and these vary from one million miles to ten million miles. As the sun's diameter is 886,000 miles it must be one of the smallest stars. The total number of stars visible in our largest telescope is about seventy millions, but the number which can be recorded on photographic plates by 18 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS means of long exposures with our largest reflecting telescope is many times as great. The result is ob- tained by photographing small squares of the night sky, carefully measured, and then counting the stars that the photographic plate show^ within some of the squares that appear to contain about an average number. The number thus obtained multiplied by the number of such squares in the entire heavens gives roughly the number of stars that are bright enough to be caught by the sensitive plate. This gives us more than a thousand millions. For every star that we can see with the unaided eye on a clear night, which is less than 5,000, the telescope and camera show 320,000 ; but no one knows that this in- cludes all or nearly all the stars. Every improve- ment of the telescope or photographic film shows us millions beyond those visible before. Still we do not know whether what the plate reveals is nearly the whole of the universe, or whether it is but a little spray, as it were, in an unthinkable ocean of stars. Abbott says on this interesting subject: "But why is it that there is a limit of numbers? Are we to suppose that there are no more stars and that if our telescopes were sufficiently powerful to perceive those of twenty-sixth magnitude we could see all, little, or big, that exist? Or are we rather to suppose that there is a limit of distance beyond which no star can be seen, however bright, so that though myriads without limit may exist, no single station in the universe is able to receive light from those beyond this limiting distance? It seems prob^ able that the latter hypothesis is the true one, al- though astronomers would not be unanimous in saying so. 'In recent years one bit after another of evidence has come out, tending to show that there is a light- absorbing medium in space. It is very rare. Dr. L. THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 19 V. King has recently computed that the most prob- able measure of its effect on star brightness would be satisfied by assuming a density of the supposed absorbing medium in space less than one trillionth part of that of the air. But even at this rate, space is so vast that the quantity of the supposed medium within a sphere whose radius is the average distance of the nearest star, (a Centauri) is about 10,000 times the mass of the sun, which is startling if true." ''These figures are of course uncertain. But that there is in space here a particle, there another, yon- der a hydrogen molecule, beyond still others, and that in the well-nigh endless path extending to stars of the twenty-sixth magnitude, whose light traveling 186,000 miles per second takes tens of thousands of years to travel to us, there would be found enough such particles to bar the doors of light, as a fog shuts out the sun — this seems reasonable." The vastness of even the area studded with stars within the range of our unaided vision may be judged from the fact that the nearest star to us. Alpha Centauri, is twenty-five trillion miles away (25,000,000,000,000.) Traveling at the rate of a mile a minute, one would require fifty million years to go from the earth to this nearest of the stars. The distance traveled by light going 186,000 miles a sec- ond in 365 days is about six million million miles. This is called a light year. At this rate of speed it would require four and a half years for light to travel from our nearest star to us. As light travels ninety million miles from the earth to the sun in eight minutes and from the sun to its most distant planet, Neptune, in four and a half hours, we may form a faint conception of the enormous distance it would travel in four and a half years in going from earth to the star nearest to it. It will also aid in getting a conception of the interstellar distances to 20 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS know the fact that the average distance of a third magnitude star from the earth is four million times the sun's distance from the earth. These third mag- nitude stars are clearly seen by the naked eye, as are also those of fourth, fifth, and sixth magnitudes. The average distance between neighboring stars is seven or eight light years. The stars seen by the aid of the telescope are at distances from us so large that figures stating them are beyond comprehen- sion. As seen through our most powerful telescopes they seem to be mere points of light. The vast ma- jority of stars are so far away from the earth that it takes eight thousand years or more for light to come from them to the earth. Abbot says of the star measurements: ''Even the length of a diameter of the earth is too small a base line from which to triangulate for the distances of the stars. Astronomers use the diameter of the earth's orbit round the sun, 186,000,000 miles, for this. Astronomers also take advantage of the fact that very faint stars are usually much farther away (though not invariably so) than bright ones. Thus it comes about that if photographs of a bright star are made with the same telescope at two dates six months apart, and exact measurements of the distance of the bright star from its faint neighbors are made on both photographs, a slight displacement of the bright star will often be found to have occurred. The angular measure of displacement gives the vertical angle of the isosceles triangle of which the base line is the diameter of the earth's or- bit, and from these data the star's distance is easily found. Seen from the nearest star, A Centauri, the ladius of the earth's orbit, 93,000,000 miles subtends an angle of only 0.75 seconds. This is called the stars' parallax," THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 21 ''The distances of less than 1,000 different stars have been measured. It is a slow, tedious work, often disappointing. A Centauri, the nearest star, except the sun, is at 25,000,000,000,000 miles, while the sun is at only 93,000,000 miles." ''When a measurement indicates that a star is at 2,000,000,000,000,000 miles or more (parallax 0.01 seconds) it is the same as saying that the star is too far away for its distance to be determined. It may be ten or a hundred times as far as the measurements indicate. This is about the average distance of the faintest stars visible to the naked eye. The great majority of telescopic stars lie beyond this distance." There is no good reason to doubt that many of the stars have their planets and satellites just as our sun, but they are at distances from us so great that a planet of even the nearest star could not be seen by our best telescopes. It may be that there are mil- lions of planets like our world and if so it seems probable that some of them are inhabited by living beings such as we find on earth. Many of these stars are larger than our sun. Sirius, the brightest star in the heavens, though it is nine light years distance from us, is three times as large as the sun. One of the stars in the constellation Pegasus is eleven times as large as the sun. The largest measured star is Canopus, which is fifty-one times as large as the sun. Nor is our sun the hottest of the stars. Remarkable as it may seem, astronomers are able to estimate the probable temperature of the stars because of the fact that there is a relation between temperature and the distribution of light in the spectrum. Our sun's surface, as has been stated, is thought to be at least 6,000 degrees Centigrade (10,800 Fahrenheit) above the melting point of ice. Some stars appear to have a temperature of 9,000 degrees Centigrade while others have temperatures probably as low as 22 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 3,000 degrees. Abbot tells us that we have*' suc- ceeded in measuring the heat caused by the rays of the stars so faint that the eye can scarcely see them. For this purpose the rays were collected by a con- cave mirror of three feet diameter and focussed on the surface of a very delicate electric thermopile. This instrument acts on the principle that a differ- ence of temperature between the junction of two metals made up into a closed wire circuit produces an electric current. The apparatus used was so deli- cate that if the experiment could be made in a vacuum the heat from the rays of a candle at 53 miles could be observed." The stars are crowded towards the plane of the Milky Way. Looking from our position near the center toward the rim of this vast circular plate of space, that is, toward the region of the Milky Way, we find in our telescope myriads of stars, and the Milky Way itself in powerful telescopes is resolved into a throng of separate stars. Looking in a line perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way, and toward the axis of the circular plate of space, we find far fewer stars, and apparently all of them near enough to be descried by our telescopes. Our sun and its planets seem to be nearly the center of the circular plate of space that contains almost all the stars. The universe of stars — our stellar system — is be- lieved by the students of the subject, all but unani- mously, to occupy a limited volume of space that is somewhat the shape of a very flat pocket watch, or more strictly, a much flattened spheroid. However, it is not intended to convey the impression that the boundaries of the stellar system are sharply defined or that the stars are uniformly distributed through- out the spheroid, and all at once, at the surface of the spheroid, cease to exist, but only that the stars THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 23 are more or less irregularly distributed throughout a volume of space roughly spheroidal in form, and that the thinning out of the stars near the confines of the system may be quite gradual and irregular. The equatorial plane of the spheroid is coincident with the central plane of the Milky Way. We see the Milky Way as a bright band encircling the sky because in looking toward the Milky Way we are looking out through the greatest depth of stars. The solar system is believed to be somewhere near the center of the stellar system known to us. The portion of space in which stars are known to exist is estimated to be 3,000 light-years (18 quad- rillion miles) in thickness, that is in a direction per- pendicular to the plane of the Milky Way, while the diameter of the spheroid, that is, the plane of the Milky Way, is probably ten times that distance. Joseph Barrill says: ''To bring down the dimen- sions of the universe to finite comprehension, we must divide the scale of nature by a hundred million. Then the earth would be represented by a pebble half an inch in diameter, circling once a year about a sun 4.5 feet in diameter, at a distance of 500 feet. The nearest star, A. Centauri, would on this scale be seen as two spheres revolving about each other at a distance apart equal to two miles, and each compar- able in size to the sun. This double star would be situated at a distance of about 25,000 miles from our planetary system with the sun, but the other stars in this part of the stellar system would be separated from each other on the average by more than twice this distance. The Galaxy or Milky Way is the cloudlike zone of faint stars which extends as a belt around the sky. The stars in it appear faint and close together because of their remoteness. They seem to constitute the outer zone of our stellar system, and its dimensions are only vaguely known. 24 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS On this diminutive scale, dividing the scale of nature by a hundred million, the Milky Way might b^ found to be encompassed by a circle of a hundred million miles diameter, or it might be more or less." Though the stars are called ''fixed" stars, it is nevertheless true that each of them is moving through space at great speed with what is called its ''proper motion." By the aid of the spectroscope and photographic plate, we are able to determine the speed and direction of every star. The average speed of the stars is about sixteen miles a second. We know, for instance, that our sun, dragging its family of planets with it, is moving through space at a speed of twelve miles and a half a second. Some of the stars are moving at a rate of two hundred miles a second. As those which are supposed to be the oldest — the red ones — move the faster, it seems that stars fall through space under the pull of gravi- tation and increase their speed with age. This is a recent discovery that the velocity of a star depends upon its class of spectrum, those showing most red being the oldest and fastest. The irregular nebulae seem to be at rest, the blue stars, which have only hydrogen and helium, have the lowest velocities, while the velocities increase as we pass to the yellow and the red stars. Not only is the speed of the stars moving through space determined, but the directions of their move- ments are also known. We know that we are being carried by the sun toward the star Vega in the con- stellation Lyra, which will be our North star twelve thousand years hence. The sun's direction of move- ment is approximately in a line from Sirius to Vega, and of course v/e on the earth are traveling with the sun. Vega is apparently moving toward the sun. Of the seven stars forming the "big dipper" in our northern sky, five are moving in one direction while THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 25 the other two have a very different course. All seven of them, hov^ever, are moving at nearly the same speed. Two vast streams of stars that lie in the plane of the Milky Way have been discovered to be moving in opposite directions. One toward a point in the northern edge of Orion in the Milky Way and the other exactly opposite to this. This discovery made by Kapteyn in 1904 has been con- firmed by all investigations since. Thus the stars have their courses, their ''proper motions,'' and they move in various directions. A great many of the stars are double stars that revolve around a common center of gravity and move on- ward through space together, and there are some clusters of stars that all move in the same direction. Abbot in the Smithsonian Report (1916) says: "The greatest conception in regard to star grouping is that of "star streaming" recently worked out by Kapteyn and by Eddington of the University of Cam- bridge, England. They find that when the proper motions of the stars are cleared of the effects of solar motion the remaining so-called "peculiar mo- tions" of the individual stars, while they go to some extent at random, plainly indicate the governing in- fluence of two great streams moving oppositely. If we could collect all the stars at one point and endow each of them with its "peculiar motion" just as it has been observed, then at the end of a century the stars would have stretched out, not into a sphere but into an ellipsoid, owing to the influence of the two star streams. This grand phenomenon is attracting deep attention from astronomers today, and will undoubtedly play a great part in future studies. All stars including our sun move, each with his own rate and direction, so that at the end of a century the con- figuration of the heavens is not quite the same as at its beginning. These "proper motions" range from 26 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 870 seconds of arc per century down. (A second of arc is about the angular width of a telegraph wire as seen at a distance of half a mile.) The vast ma- jority of stars have a less proper motion than 20 sec- onds per century." 'Troper motions are observed as angles and can- not be expressed in miles per second without other information. We see only the component of motion at right angles to the line from the earth to the star. If a star is coming directly toward us, it has no proper motion, though its real speed may be very great. Near stars have greater average proper motions than distant ones, just as men walking on the other side of the street apparently outdistance those a block away. Two things besides proper motion are therefore needed to determine the real motion of a star, namely, its distance and the angle its real motion makes to the line of sight.'^ ''Fortunately, the spectroscope can help in this matter. Although, as stated above, the chemical elements are discovered in stars by the reversal of their spectrum lines, careful measurements show that the position of the stellar lines are slightly shifted, either toward the red or toward the violet, with respect to the bright lines of the comparison spectrum of metal." ■ ''Light travels by waves. Violet light has more waves per second than red. If a star is approaching, its light seems to have more waves per second be- cause the star's motion is added to that of light, and hence all the spectrum lines are shifted toward the violet. The lines are shifted toward the red for stars that are receding. From the amount of shift the act- ual rate of approach or recession of the star may be found. Naturally, a small correction must be made for the motion of the earth on its axis and its motion round the sun. We then have the actual rate of THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 27 motion of the star to or from the sun." ''Many stars are found to be of variable bright- ness. It has been shown lately by the Smithsonian observers that even the sun is variable through a range of about ten per cent. But most of the known variable stars vary much more widely than this. The cause of the variation is now known to be, in many but not all cases, the presence of a companion star so near the primary star as to be indistinguishable by the telescope, but discoverable by spectroscopic studies of motion in the line of sight. As the two stars revolve about their common center of gravity they alternately eclipse each other as seen from the earth. Of course the eclipse may be either total or partial, according to the relative sizes of the two stars and the inclination of their orbit to our line of sight. By a careful study of the variation of bright- ness of these objects it is possible to fix the period of revolution, the relative size of the two stars, the in- clination of their orbit, and other data.'' "The spectroscope shows, by noting the periodic variability of velocities of stars in the line of sight, that about one-fourth of all the visible stars are really double or multiple, though apparently single to the telescope. So, for instance, Campbell found that the polar star is probably triple. In cases where the stars are so wide apart that the telescope can perceive them as separated, not only can the distance of the stars from each other and from the earth be determined, but also the combined mass of the pair in terms of the mass of the sun. Where there is no visible separation, the mass can be deter- mined for some cases in which the plane of the orbit is known. For A Centauri, the nearest star to the sun, there is visible separation of two components, which revolve in 81 years. The total mass is twice that of the sun, and, the two components being near- 28 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS ly equal, each is of about the sun's mass. The two are separated about 23.6 times as far as the earth is from the sun. The periods of revolution of double stars thus far determined spectroscopically range from 41/2 hours to 90 years. From the photometric study of eclipsing binary stars it has been shown by Roberts and by Russell that the average densities of these stars is small, no more than one-eighth of that of the sun. On this and other grounds astronomers are of the opinion that stars are generally less dense than the sun." The double stars, the ''binary star system" just alluded to, come into existence by a process which Campbell has described as follows: "Great masses, masses larger on the average than our sun, compos- inv highly attenuated stars, have divided each into two masses to form many or most of our double stars. The two component stars would in such case at first revolve around each other with their surfaces almost or quite in contact. Tidal forces would gradually cause the bodies to move on orbits of large and larger size with correspondingly longer periods of revolution, and the orbits would become constantly more ecentric. While these processes were under way the component bodies would be radiating heat and getting smaller and their spectra would be changing into the more advanced type. We cannot watch such changes as they occur, but we can, I think, find abundant illustrations of these processes in the double stars. I have given reasons for believ- ing that one star in every two and a half as a mini- mum proportion is not the single star which it ap- pears to be to the eye or the telescope, but is a system of two or more suns in mutual revolution. The formation of double stars, therefore, is not a sporadic process; it is one of the straightforward re- sults of the evolutionary process." (Sc. Monthly, THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 29 Dec. 1915) Sooner or later every star grows dim with age. Its light goes out and a crust forms on its surface. Because of this there are immense dark bodies, mil- lions of them, hurtling through space and there is reason to believe that there are more of these ex- tinct stars than of shining ones. Arrhenius, one of the greatest of living scientists, estimates that there are a hundred times as many. Newcomb and Kelvin believed that the larger part of matter in the uni- verse is invisible already. A number of the luminous stars have dark companions which travel with them and sometimes eclipse them from our view by pass- ing between them and us. Sometimes one of these immense dark bodies enters an area in which there are small masses of matter scattered throughout millions of miles, and then, because these small masses fall in showers, rushing at high velocity on its crust, the dark body will become incandescent with surface heat and glow as a star for many months. This is one cause, perhaps the most frequent, of the appearance of the new stars, which sudden- ly flare up in the heavens, as a phenomenon which has often occurred. One other cause of these new stars is the collision of two of the extinct stars, a catastrophe that would end the existence of both bodies by dispersing their contained matter and making a nebula scattered throughout many mil- lions of miles of space. This space would glow brightly for awhile, but as the scattered particles would begin at once to radiate their heat and soon grow cold, the light would disappear. The two stars would thus be converted into a luminous gaseous nebula which would in millions of years evolve into stars and then would shine for ages and in course of time grow cold and dark. Another cause is the ex- 30 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS plosion of a star on which a crust has formed. The near approach to each other of two stars would cause the explosion of both of them. Twenty-nine of these new stars, or temporary stars, as they are sometimes called, have appeared since 1500 A. D. They blaze out and become prominent objects in the heavens, and then fade away and disappear. One of them in 1752 grew to be so brilliant in five days after it was observed that it could be seen in full daylight. After three weeks it began to decline and in two years it utterly disappeared. In 1604 a new star appeared and attained a brightness equal to Jupiter. It disappeared entirely in fifteen months. In February, 1901, one appeared in Perseus and in two days became the brightest stars in the northern heavens, but after that it rapidly decreased in brightness till it reached the twelfth magnitude. It then became constant in its brightness, and has re- mained so up to the present time. Nineteen new stars have appeared since 1886, the photographic dry plate applied systematically to the heavens aid- ing in discovering them. Most of the stars, perhaps three-fourths of them, are almost unchanging in their brightness from year to year. There have been already discovered about forty-five hundred that are variable, their brightness fluctuating, some in short periods and others in long periods, some varying regularly and others irregu- larly. Algol, a very beautiful star in the constella- tion Perseus, is one of a hundred and fifty variables already found that have short regular periods of variations in brightness. This star, Algol, once in a period of 2 days, 20 hours and 49 minutes suffers a partial eclipse and fades from a second magnitude star to nearly a fourth magnitude star. The eclipse lasts nearly thirteen hours. It is due to a dark body^ an invisible companion nearly as large as Algol, re- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 31 volving around it and passing between us and it. A similar condition is probably the cause of all the regular variables, while the probable cause of the irregular variables is an explosion that throws burn- ing masses far above the surface, as we see happen in a small way on the surface of our sun. We see on our sun in periods of about eleven years spots which are darker regions on the surface accompan- ied by ridges and crests of specially luminous matter which rise like mountains into its atmosphere. These latter are called faculae. The sunspots which occur on the sun at intervals of about eleven years are immense whirlpools, some of them a hundred thousand miles in diameter, in which currents of burning gases are rushing. Periodical changes simi- lar to these are probably found in the stars. With the telecope we find in the heavens no less than 450,000 nebulae, cloudlike masses of glowing matter. Many of these show spir^-l forms. It has been suggested that some of these may be leading to the formation of suns and planets that will be- come similar to our solar system. If this be so, we are witnessing in the spirals of these nebulae the birth of stars and planets. The spectroscope shows that the matter of these spiral nebulae, as well as the matter of the stars, contains some of the chemic- al elements found on our earth. Nebulae were formerly supposed to consist entire- ly of incandescent gases, either of ordinary matter or of matter before the stage in which it is formed into atoms of the elements. It is possible that this is true of some of them, but many of them are now known to consist of some solid mater, and it may be that their incandescence is owing to the friction and continual collision of small solid masses formed in space out of this scattered world-stuff, all of which is drawn into a great swarm by gravitation. The 32 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS From Photograph in Comstock's Astronomy. — D. Appleton & Co. The nebula in the constellation Andromeda seen above is in width five hundred thousand times the distance of the earth from the sun. It would require eight years for light to travel across it traveling as it does, at the rate of eleven million miles a minute. It is barely visibie to the naked eye, to which it appears to be a small white glowingmass; but as seen through a telescope it is a vast luminous whirlpool of glowing matter in which certain places are thickened and rounded. We can see a large central mass and other thickened rounded places of smaller size, which by gravitation must draw into themselves all the matter now in the spaces between them. This matter in the spaces between would aggregate into small bodies, planetesimals, which would fall into the large central mass or into the other large masses. The central mass would thus become a sun^as the other large masses would become other suns. Such was the origin of our sun Tiie light from this nebula broken by the spectroscope shows that the matter of the nebula is the same as that found in our sun and earth, hydrogen, helium, «tc. THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 33 scattered world-stuff may be molecules pushed off the stars by the radiant energy of heat or it may have been scattered into space by the collision of stars. Immense numbers of small cold bodies brought together in a swarm by gravitation would by their continual collisions convert parts of their surfaces into hot vapor, which would be continually renewed. Hence the nebulae, ''instead of being diffused clouds of intensely heated gas, are swarms of solid meteor- ites, which were originally cold but are heated by collisions and thus give off a continual supply of in- candescent vapor." The theory that the dispersed matter in space gravitates toward a center and forms the spiral nebulae and that these in turn become stars and solar systems derives some support from the knot- like condensations which appear in nebulae, as for instance, in the famous white nebula in Andromeda, which can be seen by the naked eye. The enormous size of this and other nebulae leads, however, to the view that perhaps we see in them other universes of stars so far away as to be unresolvable. Sir William Herschel proposed this so-called Island Universe theory. The spectroscope proves that nebulous mat- ter is the same as that in the stars, which, as we have seen, is the same as that of which the earth is made. The spectroscope enables us to detect the least quantity of any element burning as a gas flame, for every element burning as a gas flame emits rays of light that are split by the spectroscope into -certain series of lines. Sodium has its series and so each of the eighty-three elements has its series of lines by which it may always be recognized. The light from the sun and the stars passing through a spectro- scope tells us what elements are there with as much certainty as if their surfaces could be reached by 34 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS our hands. As already stated a stai' is seen in(?roly as a point of lig-ht through our largest telescopes, but in passing through the prism of the spectroscope the ray of. light is spread out as colors which are crossed by bright lines. C. G. Abbott of the astrophysical observatory of the Smithsonian Institution tells how we get "news from the stars" by means of the spectroscope: ''Light is the messenger that brings the news. The message is in cipher, very long, faint, and hard to read. It tells of the materials, classifications, tem- perature, motions, distance, grouping, brightness, variability, mass, size, and number of stars. ''Starlight collected by a telescope is passed through a spectroscope. This forms a narrow band, called the spectrum, violet at one end, red at the other. A photograph of the spectrum is made and for most stars this shows the colors crossed by dark lines. "Suppose an electric arc is made to play between iron poles and its light is sent through the spectro- scope. Instead of a bright continuous spectrum with dark lines, as given by a star, there appears its exact opposite — a very faint spectrum crossed by bright lines, especially numerous where the green occurs in the spectrum of starlight. "Matched together, one spectrum above the other, the bright iron lines occur where the dark lines cross the star spectrum. So unmistakably is one the re- versal of the other that the coincidence seems to give proof of the presence of iron in the star. Prob- ability becomes assurance when it is known that un- der some circumstances iron vapor can produce dark lines on bright spectrum ground, just as usually found in starlight, and that some stars on the other hand, show bright lines on a faint spectrum back- ground. THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 35 "Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, calcium, and many other elements are similarly shown to exist in the stars by the spectroscopic examination of starlight. But not all the stars show all these elements. Great differences are found in the stellar spectra, and stars are classified accordingly." The fundamental principles of the wonderful art of spectroscopy were discovered in 1859 by a Ger- man physicist, Kirchoff. From these we know that a light from a solid body, which is liquid or con- densed gas heated to incandescence, passed through a spectroscope makes a band of light continuous from red at one end and violet at the other, but if this light pass through cooler gas before entering the spectroscope we see a spectrum consisting of dark lines on the bright ground, each element mak- ing its own grouping of these dark lines. Light from incandescent sodium gas is recognized when we see two orange bright lines. We know also that the cooler vapors around a burning body ''have the power of absorbing exactly those rays from the hot- ter inner source which the vapors by themselves would emit to form bright lines." From these prin- ciples we have a perfectly sure method of determin- ing the elements found in a glowing body, no matter how far from the spectroscope. Thus it is that we can say that we know that certain nebulae consist of luminous gases in which hydrogeu and helium predominate. We know that those stars that give a spectra of both continuous colors and bright lines have a condensed central part which is surrounded by a hot atmosphere. All the stars above the eighth magnitude are now being classified according to their spectra, which by disclosing what elements predominate informs us Avhether the star be young or old. The helium stars, those which show mainly helium spectra, are young- 36 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS est and are class B, and the hydrogen stars, a little older, are class A. These two young stars shine with bluish-white light. In class F the lines indicating the presence of metals are numerous. These stars are not so blue as classes A and B. The yellow stars begin with class G. Here we find large numbers of metallic lines and very few hydrogen lines. The calcium bands are wide and bright. The yellow and slightly reddish stars are in class K and have still more metallic lines in their spectrum. After class K comes the decidedly red stars, the oldest, and here we find the most metallic lines. Class N contains extremely red stars in which we find metals and carbon conspicuous and the temperature low as com- pared with the young stars. They are very faint and only a few of them are visible to the naked eye. Bodies older than the N stars emit no light and are in the condition of the earth and other planets. All the stars will ultimately become dark and unshining bodies. It is interesting to note that the two streams of stars, which, as we have noted, Kapteyn discovered in 1904, contain stars of different ages. One stream ''is rich in the early blue stars, less rich relatively in yellow stars, and poor in red stars, whereas the other stream is very poor in early blue stars, rich in yel- lows, and relatively very rich in reds. His interpre- tation is that stream-one stars are effectively young- er than the stream-two stars on the whole. Stream- one still abounds in youthful stars; they grow older and the yellow and red stars will then predominate. Stream-two abounds in stars which were once young, but are now middle-aged and old." Says Dr. W. W. Campbell of Lick Observatory in the Scientific Monthly of October, 1915: "The gen- eral course of the evolutionary process as applied to the principal classes of celestial bodies is thought to THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 37 be fairly well known. The large irregular nebulae, such as the great nebula in the Orion, are thought to represent the earliest form of inorganic life known to us. The material appears to be in a chaotic state. There is no suggestion of order or system. The spectroscope shows that in many cases the substance consists of glowing gases or vapors, but whether they are glowing from the incandescence resulting from high temperature, or electrical condition, or otherwise, is unknown, though heat origin of their light is the simplest hypothesis now available. Whether such nebulae are originally hot or cold, we must believe that they are endowed with gravita- tional power, and that their molecules or particles are, or ultimately will be, in motion. It will happen that there are regions of greater density, or nuclei, here and there throughout the structure which will act as centers of condensation, drawing surround- ing material into combination with them. The pro- cess of growth from nuclei originally small to vol- umes and masses ultimately stupendous must be slow at first, relatively more rapid after the masses have grown to moderate dimensions and the supplies of outlying material are still plentiful, and again slow after the supplies have been largely exhausted. By virtue of motions prevailing within the original nebular structure or because of inrushing materials which strike central masses, not centrally but ob- liquely, low rotations of the condensed nebulous masses will occur. Stupendous quantities of heat will be generated in the building-up process. This heat will radiate into space because the gaseous masses are highly rarefied and their radiating sur- faces are large in proportion to the masses. With loss of heat the nebulous masses will contract in vol- ume and gradually assume forms more spherical. When the forms become approximately spherical. 38 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS the first stage of stellar life may be said to have been reached. ''Speaking somewhat loosely, I think that we may say that the processes of evolution from an extended nebula to a condensed nebula and from the latter to a spherical star, are comparatively rapid, perhaps normally confined to a few tens of millions of years, but the farther we proceed in the development pro- cess, from the blue star to the yellow and possibly but not certainly on to the red star, the slower is the progress made, for the radiating surface through which all energy from the interior must pass be- comes smaller and smaller in proportion to the mass, and the connection currents which carry the heat from the interior to the surface must slow down in speed. ''The quantity of heat in our sun, now existing as heat, would suffice to maintain its present rate of overflow only a few thousands of years. The heat generated in the process of the sun's shrinking un- der gravity, however, is so extensive as to maintain the supply during millions of years to come. Helm- holtz has shown that the reduction of the sun's ra- dius at the rate of forty-five meters per year would generate as much heat within the sun as is now radi- ated. This rate of shrinking is so slow that our most refined instruments could not detect a change in the solar diameter until after the lapse of 4,000 or 5,000 years. Again there are reasons for suspecting that the processes of evolution in our sun, and in other stars as well, may be enormously prolonged through the influence of energy within the atoms or mole- cules of matter composing them. The sub-atomic forces residing in the radio-active elements r^^pre- sent the most condensed form of energy of which we have any conception. It is believed that sub- atomic energy in a mass of radium is at least a mil- THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 39 lion-fold greater than the energy representc^d in the combustion, or rather chemical transformation, of any ordinary substance having the same mass. These radio-active forces are released with extreme slow- ness in the form of heat or the equivalent, and if these substances exist moderately in the sun and stars, as they do in the earth, they may well be im- portant factors in prolonging the lives of these bodies." Except for their immense dimensions the various nebulae in space could come from a collision of two stars. This would scatter their material in direc- tions opposite to the point of the contact and form an elongated nebula. Such nebulae are seen. They could also come from an explosion of suns traveling near each other, the gravitation of such immense masses when within a short distance of each other being a force so powerful as to overcome cohesion and tear asunder all the atoms. This would scatter the matter in all directions. They could also come as a slow aggregation into small bodies of electrified corpuscles driven from the surface of the stars by the radiant energy of heat and light. These electri- fied corpuscles are called ''cosmical dust." The aurora borealis that lights up the skies of the polar regions of the earth with brilliant waving streamers of red or green is caused by these showers of electri- fied corpuscles constantly coming from the sun and striking the rarefied gases of the upper atmosphere. The lines of magnetic force about the earth deflect these electrical particles of matter toward the poles. This ''cosmical dust" comes together in space to form tiny bits of ordinary matter, which, under the in- fluence of gravitation, draw together to form the swarms of small bodies colliding and producing the incandescent vapor and other phenomena of a neb- ula, which in time becomes a star and its planets. 40 THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS In this way an immanent God is creating the heavens and the earth. All parts of the heavens and the earth are linked together as one, for any change made in one part affects all the other parts. Not only do large masses, as earth and sun, affect each other, but the least change in an atom affects the whole universe. The light of a candle on the earth starts waves of energy that beat against distant stars and change conditions on the earth for all future time. This is the princi- ple known as the conservation of energy. It could as well be called the immortality or continuity of energy. If matter disappear from one form it is be- cause its contained energy has become a part of some other form. Each form is but a transient res- ervoir seething with the motions of its units of en- ergy, and each form is in a state of continual change, and however great or small, in the course of time it is sure to cease to be that which it now is. Its form is sure to go out of existence; but just as surely no part of its substance will ever be lost. Even the ele- ments, iron, gold, etc., may lose electrons and change to some other element. We know that radium by the loss of electrons from its atom changes to helium and we know that suns by collision with other suns may be changed into nebulae. From these facts we infer that the universe is in a process of eternal cre- ation, and that it is a perfect mechanism in which every part is dependent on every other part. As we view the grand scheme of the heavens both past and present we see that the Creative Power works by laws that are without change, the laws being necessary derivatives from His own change- less nature. Every body in the heavens influences and is influenced by every other body and changes its place and its form as a necessary result of this mutual influence. The Creative Power seems to be THE MAKING OF THE HEAVENS 41 embodied primarily in the sensitive units of energy, the electrons, which compose all parts of all bodies in all the universe. These electric units influence one another and hold one another in balance in the structure of the atom. The atoms influence one an- other and hold one another together to become the elements, gold, silver, etc. The elemients influence one another and hold one another to become the masses in the stars and planets. The stars and plan- ets influence one another and hold one another in systems, as the solar system and the star systems that compose the universe, each and everything mov- ing as its own nature and the nature of the things about it compel. Thus the law of mutual influence causes the electrons to form atoms, the atoms to form stars and planets, the stars and planets to form systems, the same law holding the electrons in balance in the atoms as holds the spheres in their systems in the heavens. Each body, whether elec- tron or star, always moves as compelled by its nature and its neighbors. 'There's a dial in the garden And the sun is keeping the time, A faint slow-moving shadow And we know that worlds are in rhyme ; And if that shadow should falter By as much as a child's eyelash. The sea would devour the mountains And worlds together would crash. '* The Making of the Earth Of material which was once in our sun our earth was made. A vast nebulous glowing mass of matter, sucli as we now see in many places in the heavens, scattered over billions of miles of space, in the course of time gravitated around a central nucleus and became an immense sphere revolving on its axis from west to east. Such was the birth of our sun, which at first shone witli a white light, as do all stars in tlieir early history, but which, gradually cooling, has in the course of time become yellowish red. It weighs 330,000 times as much as our earth, whose weight is six sextillion tons. If the sun were a hollow globe, it would hold more than one million globes the size of our earth. At some time in the early history of our sun another body came so near to as to pull away by its gravitation about one seventh of one per cent, (one seven-hundred-forty-fifth) of the sun's mass. This mass torn from the sun followed the body hurtling past, until the body, which must have heen moving with immense velocity, was so far away that the grav- itational pull of the sun stopped the outward movement of the matter torn from it. This nebulous mass once a part of the sun spread as far away as Neptune's orbit noAv is, about three billions of miles, and, being in the absolute zero tem- perature of space, it soon cooled to become myriads of sep- arate solid bodies of varying size, each one of which moved in its orbit around the sun and rotated in its axis from west to east as its material did when in the sun. These myriads of little solid bodies then existing are called planetesimals. The larger planetesimals in the course of time pulled into themselves by gravitation the smaller bodies in and near their orbits around the sun, and thus they grew to become the eight great planets, of which our earth is one, and the planet- oids between Mars and Jupiter. How long a course of time Avas required for this process we cannot even conjecture, for THE MAKING OF THE EARTH Ave have as yet no basis of measurement of the rate of these accretions of planetesimals to form a planet; but that the process is as just described is believed to be the truth by all those most competent to form an opinion on the subject. Thus the earth was made by the coming together of scatter- ed material such as is now found in meteors. The large masses would attract to themselve the smaller and in course of time an immense globe would be built up. Whether this scatter- ed material was hot or cold, for it may have been either, the globe being formed by it would become melted as it formed, for the impact of new meteors upon it and the gr;ivitational pressure of all towards a common center would generate heat sufficient to keep it far above the melting point of any sub- stance known to us. When in this melted state, which prob- ably lasted thousands of millions of years as our earth was gradually sweeping into itself the meteoric matter in and near its orbit, the denser material, like iron, would gravi- tate toward the center and the lighter material would be pushed outward, the lightest floating on the surface. The moon, like the earth, orginated from a nebular knot made by the coming together of myriads of planetesi- n:ials. Being so near the earth, originally much nearer than it is now, it was forced by gravitation to revolve around the earth. It is now 238,800 miles away. It would require eighty-one moons to weigh as much as the earth. The moon has no air and no water. Now that the earth's outer surface has cooled and become solid and rigid and the pressure of so vast a mass has raised the melting point of the interior, it seems likely that the earth as a whole is a solid body except for some pockets of melted material, some of which, are the causes of our volcanoes. As -we proceed downward from the surface of the earth the tem- perature increases at such a rate that we would jit the depth of fifty miles find the most refractory substances melted, but the fact that the pressure also increases and raises the melt- ing point faster than it increases the temperature keeps it solid and rigid. This pressure increases from zero at the surface to nearly or quite Miy million pounds on the square THE MAKING OF THE EARTH inch near the center of the earth. It is this which makes the earth act as a solid body despite its highly heated in- terior. The rate of earthquake shocks that pass near the earth's center being faster than those which pass the outer portion, the yielding of the earth's shape to the tidal forces of sun and moon with the same elasticity as a ball of steel of similar size would yield, the proof that the deep interior of the earth is 8.3 times that of water, the outer rocky shell being 3.2 times, all corroborate the view that the earth's deep interior, though intensly hot, is now as rigid and as heavy as iron. It is not believed to be liquid. The notion long prevailing that beneath an outer solid crust there is a fluid melted mass is being abandoned. We know that iron is found in large quantities in the sun, from which the matter of the meteors is supposed to have been derived. We know that the meteorites which still fall upon the earth and of which the earth was made have most of the metals and much stony matter in them, iron being found plentifully in every meteor that falls. From these facts it seems reasonable to suppose that the heavy metal core of the earth is mainly iron. Prof. J. W. Gregory thus describes how the nebula be- came the earth: * * "The earth probably began as a col- lection of cold meteorites, but it passed through a stage in which the surface was warmer than it is now. During the crowding of the luereorites into a dense mass they must have come into violent collisions and thus have been made very hot. But a more permanent source of heat was the con- traction of the mass after the meteorites had all come into contact." "The heat of the contraction would doubtless be suf- ficient to melt some of the materials; but they could only melt near the surface, as the pressure in the deep layers would prevent the expansion that takes place when the solids became liquid. Hence the center of the mass would be kept solid by pressure. Although we have not contrived any direct access far into the earth's interior, the existence of a great metallic core has been shown to be most probable by determi- 6 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH nations of the Aveight of the earth. The earth, therefore, consists of tAvo main parts — the stony crust known as the lithosphere, and a heavy metallic mass known as the bary- sphere. The crust of the earth consisting of rock is esti- mated to be forty miles in thickness. Below this crust there is supposed to be mainly nickle-iron." The weight of the material on the earth's surface is 2.6 times that of water, while the average weight of the earth as a whole is 5.6 times that of water. It must be, therefore, that the material of the interior of tlie earth is composed of the heavier metals. The temperature of the earth's crust increases one degree Fahrenheit for CA'Crj^ fifl3'-three feet, of vertical descent, or one hundred degrees for every mile. As iron melts at sixteen hundred degrees we would expect the solid crust to be only sixteen miles thick but for the fact that the greater the pres- sure the higher the melting point of a metal. The oceans cover nearly three fourths of the earth's sui-face. Speaking more accurateh% we say that the area of the land to the ocean is as 1:2.4. The height of the land above the sea level is on the average 2250 feet. The bottom of the ocean below the sea level is on the average 12,- 000 feet. Speaking more accuratelj^ we say that the mean height of land is to the mean depth of the sea as 1:5.25. The highest place on the land is the top of Blount Everest, 29,000 feet; the greatest depth of the ocean is near Guam Island, Nero Deep, 31,615. The oceans are believed to be now where they were originally formed, but the land levels, being from the first under the wear of wind and water are very different from what they originally were. In addition to this erosion by wind and water the land surface has been greatly changed by the wrinkling and folding of the crust due to its further con- traction as it further cooled. The atmosphere, which is now about a hundred miles deep and which is composed by volume of about 21 % oxy- gen, 78% nitrogen, 1% argon, and three out of ten thou- sand parts carbon dioxide is verj^ much shallower and a THE MAKING OF THE EARTH very different mixture from what it was when the earth's crust was hot. At that time a great part of it was hydrogen, which disappeared from the atmosphere by entering into cliemical union with oxygen to become the water which made up much of the ocean. Probably the greater part of the ocean came from water made by cliemical union in the in- terior. This reached the atmosphere through vaporous dis- charges of hot springs. The tendency now is to estimate the length of time since the surface of the earth cooled and became a solid crust to the present to l)e in many millions of years. The geologists, basing their estimate on the wearing away of land and the laying of sediment in water to form strata, believe that a hundred mil- lion years have elapsed since first stratified rocks were laid. The Chemical Bulletin of the University of Manchester in January, 1915, speaking of the length of time required to ac- count for the lead and helium now found, says: "The thing about these computations (from the radio-activity of ura- nium, etc.) is the very high figures which are assigned by them to the age of the geologic eras. Rutherford, by the helium test, found the age of a sample of Fergusonite to be 240 million years, and Strutt found an archaen rock to be 715 million years. Holmes, bj^ the lead method, found the carb(niiferous era alone was 350 million years, and the era before the Cambrian rocks anything up to 1500 million years." These calculations of the chemists are not believed to be as reliable as the estimates of the geologists, namely, aliout a hundred million years since the earth cooled and the oceans were forn^ed, It is interesting to not^ that niton, a radium emanation, is found widelj" distributed in the earth's crust and in the water of wells. As there is enough radium known to exist to account for tlie maintenance of the present temperature of the earth, we have in this fact a way to account for the fail- ure of the earth's crust to become as cold as interstellar space, which would have otherwise occurred during the mil- lions of years necessary to accumulate the stratified rocks formed b}^ the slow settling of silt in the seas and oceans. 8 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH We know that the globe was once in a white hot condition, and cooled till a crust of lifeless rocks formed . The heat due to the intra-atomic activities of radium and other ele- ments that are disintegrating holds the temperature of the crust to that which we now have. Thus when all the known facts are considered we can safely say that hundreds of millions of years ago, perhaps billions, our earth came into being. After a period which must have been verj^ l<>ng, its surface cooled and hardened as a crust, its oceans and its atmosphere were formed, main- ly of the oxygen and hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. The ocean filled tlie depressed parts of its surface. Vast conti- nents of lifeless rocks lay for ages between the oceans. Under the wear of frost and sun and wind and rain the rocks of the continents crumbled to dust and dissolved in water which carried them away. These physical processes sculptured the earth's surface and brought into existence the mountains and plains and river valleys. The sinking of the coasts drowned the river valleys and flooded the plains; the rising of the coasts would make them land again. The dry land Avas ever wearing away to be deposited as layers of rock on lower levels, thousands of years being required to wear away a foot deep of the average surface. The surface drained by the Mississippi River is now be- ing worn away at the rate of one foot in fifteen hundred years. The amount of material carried by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico in one year is sufficient to cover one square mile to the depth of 269 feet. The average rate at which the land is being worn away is one foot in 3600 years for the entire earth. Thus all over the earth the sand and mud and gravel were washed down and formed strata of sediment on lower levels that became the stratified rocks in which were some- times entombed the forms of plants and animals that existed then. Often after these layers of sedimentary rocks were formed the contraction of the earth's crust would cause plains and sea-bottoms to be lifted up, and the surface would wrinkle into ridges and mountains that would become new THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 9 watersheds and make new systems of rivers, lakes, and oceans. On some parts of the earth the stratified rocks have been overlaid by lava, cinders, and ashes thrown out by volcanoes, which, as we know, were more active in the earth's early history than they are now. Whether the land be formed of volcanic or foundation rocks or by the washings from higher levels, it is always being worn away by wind and water, which carve deep valleys and expose the con- ditions of many millions of years ago. Standing on the edge of the canon made by the Colorndo River one may see a depth of six thousand feet carved through the layers of strati- fied rocks, and looking twelve miles across the canon he will see at the highest level a continuation of the stratum at his feet. A vision of the vast clianges undergone and a conception of the long time taken while the earth's surface was being brought to its present state may be had from a brief sketch of the Rocky Mountain portion of the United States, of which the canon of the Colorado is so famous a feature. This system of mountains was thrown up by a long series of upheavals of the earth's crust that extended from Alaska to Cape Horn, the entire extent of North and South America in length, while its width in what is now the west- ern part of the United States was nearly two thousand miles. At the same time that the upheaval of this immense area of sea bottom was being effected a very extensive area reach- ing beyond Polynesian Islands was being sunk. Though this was perhaps a million or more years ago, the facts just stated and those that follow^ are phiin to all who have in- vestigated them. Before this vast area was lifted above the sea level the shores of the Pacific Ocean in North America were about where the Mississippi River now runs. Sufficient time has elapsed since the upheaval of land that shifted the Pacific line two thousand miles westward to enable the water to wear away the rocks and soil that filled the space that is now immense gulches between mountain peaks and immense val- leys between the ranges of the Rocky Mountains. Examin- 10 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH ing the side of one of these mountain peaks we see that it is composed of strata laid under the ocean, and looking across from where we stand to the same level on the adjacent peak, as we did across the canon of the Colorado, w^e see a continu- ation of the same stratum as that where we stand. We plainly see that there was a time when there was no gulch or valley and that the forces of erosion, the water and wind, have w^orn away the rocks and soil that once filled the intervening space. We see, too, that not only the rock and soil once be- tween the peaks, as between Pike's Peak and Long's Peak, have been carried away by the slow process of erosion by water and wind to lower levels, but that all that vast num- ber of cubic miles of rock and soil that once lay between the tops of these mountains was once deposited on the low lands of the Mississippi, and that they have again been worn away. The surface of the earth between the crest of the Rockies and the Mississippi was once a plane that lay on a straight line between these positions. Indeed, the tops of the present peaks of the Rocky Mountains must be much below the origi- nal height to which the surface was lifted. After water had carved the Rockj^ Mountains to their present form, a great internal throe made an opening in the earth's crust in their w^estern portion and there flowed out lava sufiicent to cover 150,000 square miles, and in some places it covered it to a thickness of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. This immense sea of lava is described by Prof. Joseph LeConte as follows: "Commencing in central California as separate streams it becomes in the northern part of the state a vast flood covering the inequalities of the surface. In northern Oregon it becomes a greater flood beneath which all of the original surface is completely lost under several thousand feet of lava. It covers the greater part of northern California and northwestern Nevada, nearly the whole of Oregon, Washington and Idaho and runs far up to British Columbia to the North. In some places where it is cut through by the Columbia River it is 4,000 feet deep. In one place where the Des Chutes River cuts through it is 2500 feet deep." THE MAKING OF THE EARTH n The contemplation of so vast a body of lava brings to mind the now accepted theory that the volcanoes have given to the atmosphere almost all the carbon dioxide it contains, and as this gas is a necessity to all plant life and as all ani- mal life lives on plant life, we must conclude that but for the volcanoes the earth would be lifeless today, only bare rock and ocean. In every ten thousand parts of the atmosphere there are but three parts of carbon dioxide. From the lungs of all animals it is expired and the leaves of all plants absorb it; but the supply of it from the breath of animals is exceedingly small as compared with that obtained from volcanoes of the past and present, mainly of the past when the earth's crust was not so thick as it is today. But we must return from this digression to our description of the Rocky Mountains. The Columbia River has cut through the entire breadth and depth of the Cascade range down to within 100 feet of the sea level. Here is a canyon 100 miles long with the summit of the range rising 3800 feet above the surface of the of the river, the walls of which are all solid lava cut through by the action of water. When we realize that the peaks of the Cascade range, some of them three miles high, are the results of the slow erosion of water and wind and sun and frost, and then realize that the valleys between were filled to a depth of four thousand feet with lava w^hich was also cut away by these same slow forces of erosion, we can agree that a million years have passed during the process. And from this brief sketch of the upheaval and the carving out of our Rocky Mountains, we may form some conception of the mak- ing of other mountain systems of our earth's surface, both of the titanic forces which lifted the crust thousands of feet high and poured out lava beds upon it, and of those slow but continuous forces of erosion that make our mountain peaks and valleys. "There rolls the sea where grew the tree, O earth, what changes thou hast seen! There where the long street roars hath been The stillness of the central sea." 12 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH Having had a vision of the changes in the earth's sur- face, the carving of its mountain systems and the forming of its river valleys, let us look at the changes in the life upon it. The magnolia tree with its grand flowers, which now ap- pears only in sub-tropical Asia and the eastern part of North America, once burgeoned and bloomed where Greenland's icy mountains now" are. We find in the rocks of Greenland fos- sils which contain the spendid leaf and flower of this tree, and we also find it as fossils in rocks laid in other countries where it does not now exist, in Europe and Aus- tralia, most of them in strata laid more than five million years ago. It is found in Greenland in the Miocene era in strata laid about two million years ago. Far back of the time when the magnolia grandiflora and the oaks and the pines and our other trees with seed and fruit and flowers be- came features of our world, we reach a time when the whole earth was lush with the life of seedless and flowerless plants, which grew so rank that when they were submerged by water and covered by mud they became veins of coal. 'J'hey were the giant ferns, giant mosses and horsetails. The energy of the sunshine then trapped by their green leaves is now unlocked as light and heat and power, and it glows in our furnaces, lights our cities, and runs our factories. The plants grew rank, for the earth's atmosphere was then laden with moisture, and the sun's rays, which were much hotter then than now, evaporated far more of the ocean surface and made warmer and denser clouds that acted as a perpetual blanket reaching from pole to pole. All parts of the earth had the same warm moist climate. The same plants, the mightiest of which were ferns and mosses, were then everywhere on the earth. We know this for they are found as fossils in all continents. Thanks to the heroic endeavors of those who have visited the poles of the earth (the North Pole by Peary April 6, 1909, the South Pole by Amundsen December 14, 1911, and by Scott, January 18, 1912) we now know that once there were plants living on the land and in the sea near both the North and South Poles, where ice and snow are now perpetual. The North Pole is surrounded THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 13 by the Arctic Ocean, which is about two miles deep at the pole. The South Pole is on a great land plateau which is about two miles high at the pole. Peary found fossil bearing rocks of both plants and animals on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, (83 degrees North). Specimens of rocks collected at the South Pole by the lamented Scott and found by his dead body prove on examination to be granite, gneiss and other archaean rocks made before there Avere any stratified rocks or any life upon the earth; but seams of coal and fossil wood and great thicknesses of limestone, which is composed of skeletons of radiolaria and other forms of sealife once deposited as ooze in a sea bottom, were found in Victoria Land, 85 degrees south, by Scott in his expedition of 1902. This proves the statement made above that the plants of which the coal beds were made grew all over the earth, reaching ahnost to the poles. The plants that once filled all lands were, as stated above, ferns and mosses and horse-tails, whose descendants are still found all over the earth, but only in its dank, dark places and in forms that are pigmies as compared with their giant ancestors, which in the Paleozoic Age covered all lands. Plants that bore flowers and fruit and seed came in- to being after the ferns, the family of plants of which the pine and fir and gingko and cypress and cedar are members being the seed plants which came earliest. It helps to give a picture of the world during the age when ferns and mosses were the highest plants to note that the fishes and amphib- ians like our salamanders were the highest forms of animals then living, and that a few kinds of insects including forms like beetles, cockroaches and dragonflies were the only anim- als above the Avorms that lived on the land during the Car- boniferous era. It required vast ages — many, many millions of years — for the condition of warmth and moisture that prevailed all over the earth during the times when ferns and mosses were the highest plants to change to our present climatic conditions, when there is eternal winter near the poles and eternal summer near the equator. The pines, firs, gingkoes, 14 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH spruces, cypresses, and cedar, which came into existence as a development just above the ferns, in the Permian period, do not until the present geologic age, nine or ten million years later, have the concentric rings that show the falling of their leaves during the winter and the accretion of a year's growth. Specimens of these trees found in t h e Cretaceous period — some of tliese specimens of petrified pine trees laid in Cretaceous strata are found in Georgia — have no suggestion of annual rings of growth. They must have lived at a time when there were no winters where they grew. The very spots of earth now occupied bj^ London, Paris, Vienna, and the other great cities built by man were once sea bottoms. Our highest mountains, as the Alps and Himalayas and Rocky Mountains, were sea bottoms in re- cent geologic times. Indeed, the great height of these mountains is owing to the fact that sufficent time has not elapsed since their uplifting from the sea level for the water and wind and sun to wear them away. The fact that the Alleghany Mountains are not so high as the Rockies is no doubt owing to the Alleghany's being by far the oldest. We can not now tell how high the Alleghanies once were. The summits of Mt. Shasta (14,380 feet) and other peaks of the immense mountains in the western part of our coun- try bear fossils of plants and animals that did not live un- til the Pliocene era, which is a part of the present geologic "age." On the top of Pike's Peak we find the teeth of the great shark, which was nearly a hundred feet long and lived on the manatees, dolphins, and other sea mammals of the Miocene era. It is these fossils which tell the storj^ of the order of creation of living things on the earth in a way that can not be gainsaid. For instance, in strata lower than those referred to on Mt. Shasta, which are nearly three miles above the sea level, we find bones of animals that lived in the Mesozoic Age, or the Age of Reptiles, which just preceded the Age of Mammals, the present geo- logic age. We find bones of these great reptiles in large number in the Rocky Mountains of Utah, a mile above the sea level. There is an especially large number of these bones THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 15 found near the banks of the Green River where it makes its way through the Uintah Mountains. We find there the bones of a great many dinosaurs, those immense four legged reptiles that dominated the entire earth during the Jurassic and Cretaceous era, estimated to be five to ten million years ago. The bones of these dinosaurs are there found Imried in the sand that settled in the mouth of a once existing river which flowed into an ancient sea, whose shore lines we may now plainly trace, though they are now not only a mile above the sea level, but they are a thousand miles from the nearest coast. Here we find at the very sunnnit of a mountain in a stratum of sand and stone that is tilted at an angle of sixtj^ degrees the petrified bones of the bronto- saurus, the most colossal land animal that ever lived. It was seventy feet long, the largest thing that ever lived except the whale. It was one of the many varieties of the dinosaurs. Some of these reptiles were herb eaters and others were flesh eaters, for in all the ages since animals came into ex- istence they have lived by devouring plants or other animals. "Life evermore is fed by death In land and sea and sky, And that a rose may breathe its breath Something must die." **The milk-haired heifer's life must pass That it may fill our own. As passed the sweet life of the grass She fed upon," The bones of these immense reptiles are found in all continents, and in such large numbers that we can form a very good picture of our earth during the latter part of the Mesozoic Age. Only a few mammals had come into ex- istence and these were very small, not larger than the rab- bits of today, Vjut these dinosaurs were everywhere. Many varieties lived in the sea as veritable sea monsters, with flippers that could propel their immense forms and with strength and teeth that enabled them to devour any other 16 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH a: ^j GC >» ^ o S 0) •r-s !3 ^% o 0) iuc eS T3 _ 1 3 ^ ^ >5 2 11 ID •- <c S £^ eg •~> bO '^ a; M ■1^ «-5 X ce ^ o '? "3 a; z > o 2 2 lii III fJI 1 C 5 '5 '■13 9 2 s 1 3 5 2 ^ ® VH c CU --? i "S «l CD c o -o c f5 £ u C3 > 2 a; g o o xn OJ M ^ 0) 0) >< -2 D r^ ^ J 2 — C c ~B Im ^^ ac •< N « • = ^ eg — ^ vT t5§1 •ji 1 ^ ? 3 C g, ^ 5 2 o .s-S^ . '^ Si ^ = e !'^l 1 ■§ s C -g)'^^ ic _c i a 3 *-S s y* f -^ S jS '-3 d S* ® ■- c- X =^ S o .2£ ^ i (-1 2 P ^ S£ .= O CO »*■ ^v/ 4) D S c .1^ 5 :l-l Si % -TS 5 S 0) c ■3 >i ^1 3 -3 02 oi ^ S3 ZJ THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 17 inhabitant of the ocean. There were manj^ varieties tliat lived on the land. Some of them stood on two feet and could reach the top of a tree thirty feet high. Some of them had sliarp claws and saber-shaped teeth that adapted them to hold and devour their prey. Others, like the huge brontosaurus whose bones are now found in the Rocky Mountains, stood on four feet and had teeth adapted to eat- ing herbs. Still other varieties lived in the air, some of them with a wing span of twenty feet. Thus these four leg- ged reptiles ruled the air, land, and sea, and were then the leading features in the life of the earth. Now nearly all of the varieties are extinct, their only descendants being a few species of snakes, lizards, alligators, and tortoises, which are growing fewer in numbers from year to year. In the embr3^o of the snake we find legs that later disappear, a fact which shows that their ancestors had legs. After this Age of Reptiles there came the Age of Mammals. The forms of life now living are in lineal descent from those in the age just before us. It is from fossils that we find out what these forms were, and the order of their ar- rival. To illustrate, we find in the calcium phosphate beds that were formed on the western part of Florida and under the Gulf of Mexico adjoining it the bones of many animals living in the Miocene era. These deposits of phosphate contain many bones of the three-toed horse, the saber-tooth- ed tiger, and the mammoth and other mammals long ago extinct. The forms of mammals in the era following must be descendants of these. In the same strata with bones of these land animals there are found in these phosphate beds the bones of extinct forms of whales, the great shark, man- atees, and many other forms of sea life. This proves that all of these were contemporaries. The land of the western part of Florida was time and again through long ages lifted above the sea, and sea animals in large numbers gathered in low places and perished when the water drained away. On again being submerged it became a sea bottom with skeletons of land animals also upon it over which the silt of inflowing streams settled to form layers of rocks. We have 18 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH COM^OStTtt ( Omt, 0«wm) lN(UT.r(i6tn <e#.aft*^ •ftVOWVTES ] I Mosses Cu.o.Br«/ CCHINODCRMATA PROTOVb*»W . Wu* CHkOllftrNVM Diagram of Developments. Tiie ascent of tlie higlier life-forms from the lower is more lateral than the lines indicate, but the dia- gram is onl3' a rough attempt to show the relative places of the leading groups. — From Clodd's Primer of Evolution. preserved for us in this wsly the fossils that tell us the ancestry of many forms of life and show us that every form that has lived is in lineal d^^scent from those that formed in the previous geologic age. The order or sequence of time in which plants and ani- mals were created b y a process o f development from simplest to complex forms, from the lower to the higher, is now plainly revealed to us in the fossil remains found in the stratified rocks. The oldest strata laid that contained the earliest forms of plants and animals are called the Palaeozoic (Ancient Life) Age. The strata laid just above these are called the Mesozoic (Middle Life) Age. The strata laid just above these are called the Cainozoic (Recent Life) Age. The laying of these sti-ata, which contain skele- tons of CO- temporary plants and animals, was begun a hun- dred million of years ago, according to estimates thought to be conservative. THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 19 SYSTEM- TVnCAt FOSSILS. %'^ 3?^^^''^^© Man Mammoth Manlike Apes Woolly Quadrupeds Whales Horses Monkeys Serpents isummuiites Bony-Skeletoned Fish Oaks, Mapleri Cover Seeded Plants Birds Bird-Reptiles Mammals [small] Pines Firs Palms Sea-Lizards Reptiles, Cycads Land Vertebrates Horse-tails Ferns Fishes Lowest Vertebrate Huge Crustaceans Insects Ostracoderms Sea Scorpions Trilobites Club-mosses Shell-fish Sponges Corals Crustaceans Sea-weed [Algae] Stratified Rock Without fossils Taulb Of Stratified Rocks. The above table taken by consent from Clodd's Primer of Evolution (Longman, Green & Co.) gives a fairly correct impression of the strata and the first ap- pearance of typical plants and animals. An impres- sion of tlie time necessary to make all the layers of rocks may be inferred from the fact that the Tertiary Age required five million years. Plants developed in the following order: first those made of one cell, including bacteria, yeast, molds, algae, and fungi; second, the mosses and liverworts; third, the ferns, which have no flowers or seeds; fourth, the seed plants, the earliest of which w^ere those ^vhose seeds were 20 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH naked, as pines, firs and others. After these came the true ii(jwering plants, as magnolias, oaks, the daisy heing the plant most nearly perfect in all its parts. Animals developed in the following order: first, those made of one cell, like the amoeba, Paramecium and others; second, sponges, corals, jelly fishes, and others similar; third, star fish, sea urchins, and others similar; fourth, worms; fifth, molluscs, including mussels, oysters, snails, squids, and all one-valved shell ^sh; sixth, crabs, crawfish, insects, spiders; seventh, the shell-skins, n o w extinct, and the amphioxus; eighth, fish, the earliest animal with a head developed from backbone; ninth, amphibia, like our salamanders and frogs; tenth, reptiles; eleventh, birds; twelfth, animals that suckle their young, the mammals, which include man as the highest. In the Palaeozoic Age, the most ancient and much the longest, we find trilolntes, crustaceans and molluscs in the lower strata and we find the simplest fishes and amphibia in the upper strata. We also find in this Age fossil remains of all types of plants now^ on the earth except the cover- seeded ones. The ferns and primitive seed plants developed into luxuriant growths in the carboniferous era of this Age and formed the veins of coal. They were in the Arctic regions as well as in the Tropics, there being little or no dffierence l)etween the fossils of the Arctic and Tropical regions of the earth laid during the Carboniferous Era. After this era the fossil plants gradually changed to their present forms in the various zones. The modern firs, pines and cj^- cads begin to appear in the Permian Era, the last of the Palaeozoic Age. In the Mesozoic Age the reptiles came into being and predominated. They evolved from fishes through amphibi- an links which arose during the Carboniferous or Coal Era of the Palaeozoic Age, the breast fins of the fishes becoming the jointed forelegs, the pelvic fins the hind legs. The earliest amphibia have five toes, wdiich developed out of the fin of the fish. Some of the reptiles which developed from these amphibia were of huge size. There were, as stated be- THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 21 fore, swimming reptiles wliich ruled the sea, flying reptiles, some of them with wings twenty feet from tip to tip, which ruled the air, and walking reptiles, some of them seventy- five feet long, which ruled the land. During the Mesozoic Age birds and mammals came into being; and owing to the cold winters, which must have then begun, the reptiles, whose blood would grow cold in cold surroundings, soon became nearly extinct. After this the birds and mammals, whose blood keeps warm, began to increase in number and variety and in the next Age they ruled the air and the land. The highest plants, the poplars, willows, planes, tulip trees and magnolias first appear during the Chalk Era of the Mesozoic, and we also find that oaks, maples, walnuts, sassafras and others began their existence then. The Caenozoic or Recent Age is also called the Age of Mammals, for the mammals developed very rapidly in numbers and variety and powers and they took the mastery of the earth. The age of mammals began about five mil- lion years ago. Man appeared about a half million years ago. "From lower to higher, from simple to complete, This is the pathway of Eternal Feet; From earth to lichen, from herb to towering tree, From cell to worm, from man to what shall be; This is the lesson of all time. This is the teaching of the Voice Sublime." The ocean as first formed must have been fresh water, for it was made from the chemical union of the oxygen and hydrogen once existing in vast quantities in the atmosphere and from vaporous discharges from hot springs. At a cer- tain high temperature, \Vhich was once the condition after the earth's crust was formed, oxygen and hydrogen atoms rushed together to form steam, which as the earth's crust further cooled condensed to become pure water. The condensation of the vapor from hot springs would also be- come pure water. This fresh water sought the lower levels and became the oceans. The salt and other chemicals now in the oceans must have been brought as washings 22 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH from the land. As the amount of this salt in the ocean is known, and as the amount being carried to the ocean by the streams each year is also approximately known, the scientists have been able to calculate the number of years since the oceans were created, their creation being due to the condensation of the heated A^apor of the atmosphei-e. This estimate is one hundred and fifty million years. After the oceans were formed the stratified rocks were laid on their bottoms near the shore. These rocks are made of mud and other material carried as silt by the running streams that washed the land and entered the oceans. In the first stratified rocks there are ripple marks and beach lines, but there is no evidence that there then existed any living thing. The sun shone, the rain fell, the rivers flowed, the ocean heaved with its waves and tides; but there was no life. Above the strata of sedimentary rocks holding the earliest ripple marks, which show the existence at that time of the tides and winds and Avaves of the ocean, are an im- mense depth of layers before w e reach the layers that contain evidence of the existence of life. It must haA^e taken an enormous length of time, some estimate thirty million years, for the laying of these rocks which preceded the making of life. FolloAving these in order of super- position are rocks containing fossils, first of bacterial life, next of one celled life, next of earliest insects, Avhich are about midAvay in the strata, showing that about the same length of time elasped before fully developed insects were made as from the Age of Insects till now, each of these lengths of time being also estimated to be thirty million years. If all layers of rocks Avere put one above the other in the oi'der of time laid, they would reach a height of sixty-five miles above the earth's surface. It must have taken millions and millions of years for this much sediment to have been deposited. As it is interesting to know what the scien- tist believe as to how many years were required to make these layers of rocks, the author submits the statements made by Charles Walcott, head of U. S. Geological Survey, and by H. F. Osborn, Curator of National Museum: — THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 23 Walcott says: "The age of the earth in years I shall not attempt to discuss. A recent careful resume shows the rela- tive age of the sedimentary strata for each period of its histo- ry. These figures point to a minimum time limit of scarcely less than 90,000,000 of years since water and wind began to transport continental earth and rocks over the land and into seas and lakes. How long before that the earth history began it is difficult even to conjecture. With the discovery of tiie stored up energy of radium and the development of the planetesimal hypothesis the supposed fixed standards of the past generation have been swept away Approxi- mately as long a period of time was required to develop life to the Cambrian stage of semiprimitive forms of invertebrate marine fossils as has since elapsed up to the present time." Osborn estimates that sixty millions years have elapsed since life was formed and that thirty million years have elapsed since the beginning of the Palaeozoic Age. It was in the first era, the Cambrian of the Palaeozoic Age that trilo- bites, a marine insect, were the highest forms of life. He thinks that there was a period of about fifteen million years from the beginning of life before the earliest invertebrate was formed, that during the next fifteen million years the evo- lution of invertebrates proceeded until the earth was domi- nated by them, that during the next five million years which could be called the Age of Invertebrates there finally developed a form which was the immediate ancestor of the fish. The Age of Fishes after about seven million years developed into the Age of Amphibians, which after about six more million years developed into the Age of Reptiles. This after some nine million years ushered in the Age of Mammals which began about three million years ago. The evolution of man was completed nearly a half million years ago. Thus many million years after the ocean was formed we have no evidence of life in the stratified rocks; then there were thirty million years from the earliest life till the Cambrian era or the Age of Invertebrates; then another thirty million of Vertebrates, during Avhich the order of creation was fishes, then amphib- ians, then reptiles, then birds, then mammals. 24 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH The following geological time table is taken from Osborn's Origin and Evolution of Life. It may be justlj^ considered as representing conservative opinion on this subject. Duration of Period Order of Creation Geologic Ages Geologic Eras One-half MaHon Years Age of Man Quaternary Three MilHon Years Age of Mammals Cenozoic Tertiary Nine MilHon Years Age of Reptiles Mesozoic Upper Cretaceous Low^er Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Eighteen Million Years Age of Amphibians Age of Fishes Age of Invertebrates Palaeozoic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Fifteen Million Years Evolution of Invertebrates Proterozoic Keeweenawan Huronian Fifteen Million Years Evolution of Unicellular Life Archaeozoic Laurentian Keewatin The above table indicates the time occui3ied by each geo- logic age since life was formed, according to Osborn. The en- tire time is there given to be sixty millon years. Manj^ geolo- gists insist that it required a hundred million years for the lay- ing of strata since tlie evolution of life began. More than half of this time was i^assed before the first backboned animal was formed. THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 26 The End of the World Human research has not only made out the main features of the past of our eartli since its crust cooled a hundred million years ago, hut it has made a forecast of its future so definite that we can with our mind's eye see the outlines of coming events till its death and destruction, till that far away time when there comes "the crush of matter and the wreck of worlds." This forecast is made out as follows: Though the stars nearest to us are so far distant from us that it requires many years for light, which travels at the rate of eleven million miles a minute, to cross the inter- vening space, we have been able by the aid of the spectro- scope to discover that they are composed of the same kind of matter as the earth — oxygen, iron, gold, etc. We have also been able to determine the intensity of the light and heat emitted by each of them and to prove that the blue white stars are suns in the prime of life just formed from nebulae and that yellowish stars like our sun and Arcturus are about midway their lives and that the red ones are suns vslowly dying. Sirius, the brightest of all the stars, is bluish white and is ten times as hot as our sun. Aldeba- ran, though a brilliant star, is of a reddish color and is about one-half as hot as the sun. Capella is a red star and has about the same temperature as the sun, 5950 degrees C, which is equal to burning a layer oi coal twenty feet thick over the entire surface in one hour. Our sun is a yellowish red star and is past its middle life. Like all the rest it produces heat and liglit by shrink- ing, its diameter now growing less at the rate of a mile in eleven years. This process will continue till the natural limit of shrinking is reached, when the sun will of neces- sity grow dark and cold. Under the laws of gravity our moon, now without air or life and now holding the same side always to us, will, in course of time, begin to draw nearer to the earth and wall finally fall into and become a part of it. The earth and all the other planets will become 26 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH lifeless and heatless as our moon alreadj^ is; also they will in time hold one unchanging side to the sun, and they will fall into its shrinking and cooling surface. At last the sun, dark, cold, silent and solid, will continue to speed through space forever, unless collision witli some other celestial body convert the two into nebula, into a widely dis- persed mass of atoms and electrons which the loom of time will weave again into sun and planets. We know that there are many such dark and solid extinct suns now poised in the ether of space. The beautiful star Algol is periodical!}" eclipsed by a dark body, larger than our sun, coming between us and it. Quite a number of times within our historic period a new star has suddenly come into view in the heavens and rapidly reached a condition of great brilliancy; then in a few weeks its brilliancy faded and the star finalh" disappeared. These are sometimes due to the collision of two celestial bodies, probably extinct suns, at im- mense distances from us. The heat and light that suddenly appeared were due to the liberation of the intra-atomic ether energy caused bj^ the shock of the collision, which converted the two solid globes, in whole or in part, into a nebulous mass that soon scattered itself through Ijillions of miles of space. Most of this would be drawn together to form a new sun and planets about the area in which the collision took place. This is the eternal drama of nature, the birth and life- history and death of worlds. Careful and eminent scientists estimate that our sun and earth are more than a hundred million and less than a thousand million years old, — that is, from their birth as globes to their present state; that the career of the sun as a light and heat giving bodj^ is much more than half spent, and that in time its gaseous substance will change first to liquid, then into solid matter; that its surface must thenceforth cool rapidly by the radiation of heat, and a crust be formed that will cut off light from its central portion and make it a dark body. They estimate that the future during which the sun will continue to give light and heat is a hundred million years. After that — the dark. THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 27 Long before this darkness it seems probable that life on the earth will have become extinct. As water in the liquid state is essential to the living cell, life on earth is limited to the time during which the temperature on its surface keeps water in that state, that is, temperature neither above the boiling point nor below the freezing point of water. It follows from this that living fornis did not come into being until the earth's surface had cooled and water was upon it, and from this we can foretell that when the earth's surface growls to be so cold that all the water has changed into ice all life will have become extinct. Thus the duration of life on the earth in the future will be as long as the sun shines with such power as to keep the AA'ater in a liquid state. It should be mentioned also in this connection that the slow evaporation of the earth's air into space is going on, and, as life depends on air as well as water, the lack of air may possibly bring life to extinction before the sun ceases to shine. It is also true that the earth is slowly reducing its rate of revolution on its axis, slowly lengthening its day, and that the time will surely arrive when the earth, just as is already the case with its sister planets. Mercury and Venus, will re- volve on its axis only once in a year, and thus forever keep the same half of its surface towards the sun. The natural forces that have made the moon hold the same half of its sur- face toward the earth, revolving on its axis in exactly the same time it revolves around the earth, are operating to bring the same relation of the earth to the sun, that is, to keep the same half of the earth always toward the sun. But during the aeons ahead before there comes this extinction of life, during the many millions of years before our earth is dark and frozen, all living things will continue as heretofore their process of evolution toward better forms, a better adjustment to their environment. They will con- tinue that long ascent which started as one cell and reached man as he is today, rising through the fish stage to cold- blooded clammy-skinned creatures, living both in water and on land, that lived on the shore and that later walked on the land, there struggling from form to form and from 28 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH power to power into Avarm -blooded animals with larger brains and hairy skins until at last man came into being. There is everj^ reason to believe that this long ascent will continue to heights that are higher, man and the other creatures now living developing into forms which we can- not now foresee. There is reason to expect beyond this a gradual disappearance of living things on the earth which, growing colder and colder, will at last be bereft of life. It will become dark and frozen and will go rolling on through the silent fields of space carrying the remains of man's cities on its dead and icy bosom. No day will ever again dawn upon it and from it no thought will ever again arise. Thus, reasoning from facts, we have reached what seems to be a necessary conclusion that the time is coming when, for lack of air and water, no life will live on the earth, and when, for the lack of sunshine, no day will dawn thereon. Bej^ond this there will be darkness total except for the faint light that comes from twinkling stars. In this darkness our erstwhile sun, into whose charred body the earth and her sister planets will have been drawn, will go hurtling through space without limit and through time without measure, — until collision with some celestial body disperses its material into space as atoms and electrons. The world then ends in a nebulous mass which by the laws of its nature will again become a sun and planets. This concludes a sketch of the past and the future of our ever-changing earth, ever changing because the creative pro- cess is never ceasing. These changes are mechanized by the invariable law^s of nature, which are the eternal hands of God weaving in the loom of time and space the ever chang- ing pattern of the universe. "Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever Thou hadst formed the earth and the Avorld, From everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God". THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 29 Pictures Showing Development of Animals from Ancient Simple Forms to Modern Complex Forms Tl:ie author here inserts some drawings and plioto- graphs of animals, giving on each page animals that were living together in a certain geologic era, those on the first page being some that left their bodies entombed in the stratified rocks of theSilurian Era. Those on the next page are those whose bodies are found in the strata or era just above and following this, and so on, the succeed- ing pages giving the succeeding eras of the earth's history till the present. Some of these animals are extinct, as for instance, the trilobite, a three lobed crustacean from two inches to a foot long, which lived through all the eras of the Palaeozoic (Ancient Life) Age and are now found numerous as fossils in the rocks of many parts of the earth. Its hard shell has preserved it and enabled us to see its head, thorax, abdomen and antennae, though it became extinct in the Permian Era of the Palaeozoic Age, estimated to have been fifteen million years ago. The pictures are from nature, those of animals not living being restorations from parts found in the rocks; those of living animals are from photographs. The reader in looking a t these pictures i s seeing what God hath wrought; he is looking at the manuscript of the Creator, written during a period that has covered probably more than a hundred million years. BO THE MAKING OF THE EARTH c = 5 ^ -i' < g-^2 < o ^-2 S - = S P 7 ^ I ^ £^ « t. fl w i, a THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 31 82 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH THE MAKING OF THE EARTH 33 The photograph taken by consent from Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, is that of the skeleton of a horse, herds of which once lived in South Dakota. It shows large side toes on the fore and hind feet, for it was a three- toed horse that lived in the forests along the stream borders. These extra toes must have admirably adapted it to such a condition, for they would have kept its feet from sinking in the soft soil. Its bones are found in upper Miocene strata, and it is known to geologists as t h e Hypohippus. The bones of the three-toed horse are also found in the phosphate beds of Florida, which was a marshy region during Miocene times. There is also found in the Miocene rocks of South Dakota the skeleton of another three-toed horse, the Neohip- parion. The bones of the horse as he changed from stratum to stratum, as he grew taller, fleeter, and stonger, are now seen iu museums. Skeletons of three-toed horses are mounted in many museums. The vestiges of these side toes may now be unmistakably seen in every living horse in the "splints" just below what we call the knee, but which in reality is the wrist. From this "knee" to the hoof is a developed finger on the nail of which he walks. 84 THE MAKING OF THE EARTH In the upper left hand corner is the phenacodus (1). It is tlie long- extinct ancestor of (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6). This picture of the phenacodus is taken by consent from Osborn's The Age of Mammals. Its bones are found in eocene strata and shows the animal to be little larger than a fox. The picture of the descendants are taken from The Living Ani- mals of the World. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) THE MAKING OF THE EARTH i=t w "S bd -» p ,-r ,5: (IQ 3 c* < ^ :t 3 »-3 a p, = b CD - ^1^ 2 P ^ CD II a rz a o 2 = " 5 E 3 If c- P ^ ^ £i — "C >-i ?" "11 ? f> 2 "S a: T ^ -. "^ w o 1!^ CD c^ H »< p ~. CD ^ <» n- 3 ^ ^S? ^ p s Q (T> '- OQ !:i s" I? H-i -:^ •- 1— > M^ ^ X 5" 'jj S €3 r "3 w p ,-7 £ ^ 3- CD w ce CD s X s ^ s. ^ W ^^ZB B 5 5; in S^ C 2 5 § » rr r- < 5* ? i^ 2 ^ " c- c M 2 a c £■ ?o tif 5 ~ ^^ p ^ ^.^ ^ < '^■ z f- ^ 5 S 1 ^ c "^ ^ CD ^ > ill 5 5 g § <5 r: i ■" ? ^ 3.3 - ^11 ►— 3 CD pc S ^ > ^ X >^ •^ ■ = S- p s 5 !? =■ - = £ If ^ K !r 5 0. 1 t cr; — X -: r. = 1 ^ X > 2. ;; CD c 3 ^ ? 9 S THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 5 CHAPTER I. The Dust Becomes Living Things "From lower to higher, from simple to complete, This is the pathway of Eternal Feet; From earth to lichen, from herb to towering tree, From cell to worm, from man to what shall be ; This is the lesson of all time. This is the teaching of the Voice Sublime." There must have elapsed millions of years from the time when the crust of the earth hardened and the hydrogen and oxygen gases of its atmosphere and its rocks united to form water, which sought the deep depressions on its surface and became the oceans, to the time when the strata of rocks were laid that contain the earliest fossils of forms of life. The great ocean depths have not changed; they are now where they were then. As the water of the rivers then washed through the lifeless rocks and dust of the land they carried salt that dissolved in the ocean; it also carried mud that settled near its shores to become the stratified rocks. These strata lay on top of the archaean rocks which had resulted from the cooling of the once melted earth crust. As these strata on top of these archaean rocks have no fossils and as they are of enormous thickness, it seems to be a necessary conclusion that many mil- lions of years elapsed between the forming of the ocean and the making of life, whose forms could be preserved as fossils. On the earth then, as now, atoms of matter were forever changing their place, going from one com- pound to form another. Higher compounds formed then, as now, most rapidly in water. Chemical 6 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS unions ever more and more complex gradually came into existence, and in the course of time carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, etc., united by their affinities to form the most intricate compound in nature, protoplasm, which became a living cell endowed with sensation and self-movement. The cell probably came into existence in the pores of well-watered soils by lakes or seas. This new com- pound reproduced itself by one cell dividing to be- come two, and it could obtain energy for movement and nutrition for growth by absorbing particles of albumen, oil, etc. In this way there came into ex- istence on the earth as a purely natural process the living cell, multiplying itself and evolving into all the million forms of life in the plant and animal world. Estimating the time by the thickness of the stratified rocks deposited since those strata were laid in which the oldest fossils of life are found, the geologists maintain that this cell formation occurred at least a hundred million years ago. From the minute living cells which then formed to the forms of birds, dogs, etc., effected by the combination of billions of cells is a long, long way; but the life of the highest animals is without doubt a continuation of the lives of the cells first formed, the varieties of things now living being forms of the innumerable series evolved from these earliest cells, just as the lives of the earliest cells, the protozoa, are regarded as but a combination of the sensitive energy of atoms of carbon, oxygen, etc., put together by chemical force in such a way as to become the protoplasm that makes the living cell. Most geologists now believe that a much longer time than a hundred million years have elapsed since the first living form, the cell, was made on the earth. All the atoms of carbon, oxygen, etc., put together in this way to form the cells of a plant are taken THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 7 from the carbon dioxide and water and a few other substances in the soil and in the air. There is noth- ing in the cell except what was in air and water and soil. These are transformed by chemical action of the plant into oxygen, which goes into the air, and into starch, sugar, and other substances in the leaf or stem or fruit. This starch, sugar, and other sub- stances of the plant are the sole food of animals and they are transformed in the bodies of animals by a process of slow burning back to carbon dioxide and water, which may go to form the cells of another plant. Thus the same atoms may pass through the cycle from air and soil to plants, thence to animals, and back to air and soil again and again. The car- bon dioxide and water of air and soil become starch and sugar in the plant, and some oxygen of the leaf is set free and sunshine or solar energy is stored up. It is this energy of the sun stored up in making the starch or sugar of the plant which becomes the heat and muscular force of the animal. While matter is going from air and soil to plant and animal and back again, the energy of the sunshine which had been taken in by the leaf of the plant is dissipated as the heat and muscular force of the animal. The living cell, therefore, seems to be but a complex mechanism in which all the contained matter, i. e., energy, is derived from non-living bodies. That which was air and water and soil became the living cell of plants and animals. The dust of the earth became grass and it also became flesh of bird and beast. This in brief is the view which present-day scien- tists usually hold, but there is an age-long belief among men that the life animating the animals is a force that is a special creation and not at all a pro- duct of natural law and the attributes of matter. This view is still held by a large majority of people. Many men distinguished by their attainments in 8 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS science hold this view, maintaining that life is a spirit living along with matter and using matter for its purposes. The mind of the higher animals, the fears and hopes and loves and hates which dogs and mon- keys and other higher animals manifestly have, is supposed by the large majority to be the operation of a spiritual nature living for a time in the body. This belief may be in accord with the truth, but since the discovery that the bodies of animals are com- posed of cells made of the same chemical elements as are the cells composing the bodies of plants, and that the cells composing plants have irritability and powers of nutrition, reproduction and motion the same as those of animals, the conviction has come to the trained biologists that all life is fundamentally the same and that it is derived from properties inher- ent in the nature of the matter organized in the cell. They think that the living cell is a magazine of sensi- tive energy,and that its peculiar powers which we call life are due to a certain relation and interplay of the powers of the atoms making the cell. They think that the attributes of the atom are such that life may be derived from them, and that there is no difference in the nature of the atoms of "dead'* and ''living" matter. This view, like the age-long belief it seeks to supplant, is also merely a belief, an opin- ion, for every scientific man acknowledges his utter ignorance as to what matter and life really are. In order that the reader may see for himself that the new view is held by many of the most eminent biol- ogists the author will present some direct quotations from them : Prof. E. A. Schaffer in. his address as president of the British association in 1913 said: ''The problems of life are essentially problems of matter; we can not conceive of life in the scientific sense apart from matter. The phenomena of life are investigated and THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 9 can only be investigated by the same methods as all other phenomena are. They are governed by laws identical with those which govern inanimate matter. 'The combination of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements into a colloidal compound repre- sents the chemical basis of life ; and when the chem- ists succeed in building up this compound it will with- out doubt be found to exhibit the phenomena which we are in the habit of associating with the term life." Before a distinguished group of scientists in the Johns Hopkins Physical Laboratory, Jan. 20, 1914, Dr. L. J. Henderson of Harvard University asserted that researches extending over many years had con- vinced him that inorganic matter contained latent life. He added that he believed that this latent life became active under certain conditions. Ame Pictet, Professor of Chemistry, University of Geneva, said in 1915: "(1) The phenomena of life ^re dependent upon a special structure of the or- ganic molecule; (2) only the disposition of atom^^^ in open c:hains: permits the m^intainance and the manifestations of life; (3) the cyclic structure iS' that of the substances^ which have lost this: faulty;, and (4) finally death results, from the chemica-l point of view, by a cyclization of the elem^ents^ of the^ protoplasm." August Forel, a great psychiatrist, slays: "The" vital forces have undoubtedly originated from phys-- ico-chemical forces. But the ultimate nature of the latter and of the atoms is untaowable." H. E. Crampton, a biologist of Columbia Univers- ity,, says in his Doctrine of Evolution, page 29 : **We have seen that the essential substance of a cell is a comp^lex chemical 'compound we call protoplasm, W^ose elements a;re^ identical with chemical sub- stances outside the living world. Is there any ground for supposing that the properties of protoplasm are 10 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS due to any other causes than those which may be found in the chemical and physical constitution of protoplasm? In brief, is life physics and chemistry? Nowadays the majority of biologists believe that it is so. The marvelous properties of protoplasm are regarded as the inevitable derivatives of the various chemical elements which constitute protoplasm. Scores of students of physiological chemistry have duplicated the chemical processes of living matter, which were regarded as so peculiar to the living or- ganism that they seemed to be due to the operation of a non-mechanical and vital cause. The biologist finds himself unable to regard protoplasmic activity as anything different in kind and category from the processes of physics and chemistry which go in the v/orld of dead things." Prof. R. K. Duncan, a most able and careful chem- ist, says (Harper's Magazine, May, 1909) : '*The search has proved unavailing: instead of ^'living" and ''lifeless" matter there has been found — just matter. We have sought for ''life" and we have found "law." We have come to the conclusion that every bodily action takes place through the operation of, and in accordance with, natural laws. If by "life" is meant a transcendental entity that acts in the place of these laws, or transsects them, there is no evidence of its existence in living matter; the body is a mechanism through and through. "It may be safely said that many, perhaps most, men of science — chemists, physiologists, biologists and psychologists — believe and teach that there is no "life." They believe, and they teach, that all our feelings, thinkings and willings, our very conscious- ness, are the products of the play of physico-chemi- cal processes of the brain." Some of the smallest bodies known to us have life. These are the bacteria, many of which are disease THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 11 germs which can be seen only through our highest power microscopes. As the germs causing measles, scarlet fever and some other contagious diseases have not been discovered after thorough search for them it is believed that they are small beyond the power of any microscope yet made to see. The bac- teria are plant life. There are many animals that are microscopic, as the Paramecium and other proto- zoa. Yet these tiny things, which seem but a com- bination of chemical elements, have not only life but mind, for they may be observed to change their di- rection of movement to get away from hard, cold, acid, or very hot objects. They have sensations and these must be derived from the sensitivity that char- acterizes the electrons that make up the atoms of which they are composed. This is a hard saying that life on the earth is but a new form of the energy found in the insensible rock or in the dust of the earth. We know, however, that the inorganic world vibrates with sensitive energy w^hose ultimate nature is unknown to us, with what may be called chemical life, which is resi- dent in every atom, resident in every chemical com- pound. We know that the atoms were originally en- dowed with properties now unknown, which made them become gases that fly, liquids that flow, solids that formed crystals, and which, it would seem, final- ly made them become <iells that have life. The earth warmed by the sun seems to be the mother of all the living things on her bosom. Apparently the powers of living things are a natural result of the interrelation and interplay of the hidden forces in the very highly complex proto- plasmic cell, just as wetness, liquidness, and other qualities of water are a natural and not less marvel- ous result of the union of two gases, just as saltness and the other qualities of salt are a natural result of 12 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS the chemical union of atoms of a base and an acid, sodium and chlorine. All this is beyond our power to explain, for we are in utter ignorance as to the nature and structure of that of which the atom is .composed, the electron. We do not know what the electron really is. As cells having life are composed entirely of electrons, the latter must have that from which life is derived. Groups of electrons compose the atoms whose union brings into existence all the forms of matter with their qualities — the wetness, saltness, explos- iveness, life, etc. — qualities which always come and go with the union of atoms in a certain way. With every new form of matter new qualities come into existence ; there was no wetness before water was formed. With every new relation of different forms of matter to one another new facts appear as a con- sequence; there was no rainbow until the eye saw the sunshine reflected by falling drops of water, and there was no lamplight till the eye saw the lamp, the oil, the wick, and a flame put together in a cer- tain relation to one another. Indeed, the eye itself and all that it sees come into existence only as atoms of matter come together in certain relations to one another; all things are what they are because of the relation of atoms to each other, and, whenever the relations are changed, they all go out of existence, for "When the lamp is shattered. The light in the dust lies dead ; When the cloud is scattered. The rainbow's glory is shed." We are made somewhat aware of how vast and varied must be the powers and possibilities of the atom, and how veiled are the forces hidden in the -very dust of the earth and transformed by the pro- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 13 cesses of creation, when we observe that matter not only has the power to produce living forms, but that when living matter is so put together by natural laws as to form a brain and its sense organs, a being aware of the existence of itself and the world about it is thereby created. It makes for itself images of the outer world and becomes conscious of its own existence. This is one of the most common occur- rences in nature, occurring whenever an egg hatches into insect or chicken or dog or other animal with eyes, ears, and a brain. There is certainly no evi- dence that the living matter of the egg has conscious- ness; yet, just as we saw take place when dry gases by their union produced water with a quality, wet- ness, not seen in the atoms which formed it, so con- sciousness, a quality not seen in the egg, certainly arises when living matter is formed into a body with a brain and sense organs. Yet the matter in the brain that thinks in insect and bird and beast is the same as that which is in the dust and air and water of the earth of which they are made. It would seem from this fact that all matter is primarily a spirit- ual power embodied in units of force which are sensi- tive and capable of becoming organized into a brain that thinks. The phenomenon is commonplace and yet is utterly beyond explanation, for ''None e'er yet comprehended How soul and body wedded are and blended." The egg has the energies of its atoms arranged in a way that forms what we call life and it grows to be like its ancestors. This is true of every cell. Just as soon as the matter in the egg arranges itself to form a body with a brain and sense organs, it forthwith sees and hears and knows the world about it. Its conscious mind has come into being. Today we hold in our hand an unconscious egg; within :a few days 14 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS we may hold identically the same matter, neither more nor less, but it will have become a chicken, with desires and fears, hunger and love, with mem- ory and perception — with a conscious mind. Con- sciousness has arisen out of the activities of the atoms that were unconscious in the living egg. The brain has woven the thoughts out of sensations caused by impressions made upon the sense organs. The consciousness has therefore arisen from the ac- tivities of living matter. It is to the brain as the dial face is to the clock — an indicator of what is going on within, certain processes of the brain always occur- ring as certain thoughts come into existence. Even the insects have a brain, and they have all the senses. Ants and some others are without hear- ing. They have, says Forel, ''Memory, associations of sensory images, perception, attention, habits, simple powers of inference from anology, the utili- zation of individual experiences, and distinct, but feeble individual deliberations." Ants, bees, and wasps certainly communicate ideas to one another. They know each other as individuals and as friends or enemies. Individuals of the same species differ widely from one another in temperament, industry, and other qualities. Friends have been known to indicate recognition of each other after a separation of several months. They are known to imitate others. Ants when organized into an army stand still while a lost trail is being found and advance by signal to battle with another colony whose nest they will rob. When an ant's nest has been ruined, some ants will go on journeys to find suitable conditions for a new nest, and when the place has been found the finder will go back to the original nest and seize a companion which will permit herself to be carried to the newly selected spot. These two will then bring two more, the four four more. This process THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 15 will continue until all have been carried to the newjy selected home. Some species of ants, as polyergus rufescens, make slaves of other species on which they rely for building their nest and the care of their young. Bees always distinguish artificial from real flowers. Though the effort has often been made to make an artificial flower so well that a bee will visit it, it has not yet succeeded. The„ queen bee shows jealousy of rivals, and kills them all. Such is the devotion of the worker bees to the queen that if food is scarce they will die of hunger while feeding her. Feelings of sympathy, hatred, anger, joy, and de- jection after defeat have been proved to exist among ants, bees and other insects. They love sweets and show objection to bitter things. As these tiny ani- mals have brain with sense organs, and give evidence of having all the powers of the mind, it seems reason- able to conclude that it is the brain which functions the conscious thoughts, and that the material of the brain is made up of units that are mental in sub- stance. The following account of the ants taken from The Atlantic Monthly, May, 1919, page 604, shows their ability to think and act in ways similar to man : 'The ants are to other insects, says Dr. Forel, what man is to other mammals. Their brain sur- passes in relative volume and in complication of structure that of all other insects. If they do not attain the great individual intelligence of the su- perior mammals, they are ahead of all animals in social instinct. It is not surprising, therefore, that their social life resembles in many points that of hu- man beings. Like the most advanced human so- cieties, theirs are democracies — and warring democ- racies. Let us watch them at work. ''The Ant-State is not confined to the ant-hill : it has its territory, its domain, its colonies, and like the 16 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS colonial powers, its stations of repose and revictual- ing. The territory: a meadow, several trees, a hedge. The domain of exploitation: the ground and under the ground, and the louse-plants — these cattle that they milk, care for, and protect. The colonies: other nests more or less close to the metropolis and more or less numerous (sometimes more than two hun- dred), communicating with each other by open roads or by subterranean channels. The warehouses : little nests or earth-houses for the ants who travel far and are tired, or are surprised by bad weather. **0f course, these states try to enlarge themselves. So they start fighting. The disputes over the land at the frontier of the two big ant-hills are the usual causes of the most obstinate wars. The louse-plants are another real bone of contention. With certain species the subterranean domains — ^the roots of plants- — are equally important.- Other spedes^ live^ exclusively by war and spX)il.. The; Poiyergus^ ruf e&- eens. (Huber's: 'Amazon') disdains to work and is:no> longer ab-le to do so; it practices slavery, and is^ served, cared for, and nourished by its herds of slaves^ which expeditionary armies abduct from the- neighboring ant-hills in the form of nymphs and- cocoons.. **War is thus endemic; and all the citizens^ the worker-ants, of these democracies are called upon: to take part in it. With certain species (Pheidole paliidula), the military class is distinct from the; worker class; the soldier is exempt from all domestic: labors, lives a garrison life,, idle, with nothing to do; except during the hours when he must defend the: doors with his head. (He is used alsa in the af^ce^ of butcher: he cuts up the; prey into: sm^ll pieces;)) Nowhere^ does one see chiefs (at least, n<jt: perma- nent ones) ; neither kings nor generals. "The expeditionary armies of Polyergus rufeseens, THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 17 which vary in their number from one hundred to two thousand ants, obey currents that seem to come from little groups scattered here and there, now at the head, now^ at the tail. In the midst of a march one sees the main body of the army stop abruptly, un- decided, immobile, as if paralyzed; then, suddenly, the initiative springs from a small nucleus of ants who throw themselves upon the others, strike* them with their foreheads, start off in a certain direction, and carry the rest along. "The Formica sanguinea practices clever military tactics. It is not the compact mass a la Hindenburg, but separate platoons kept constantly in touch with each other by couriers. They make no frontal at- tack, but try to surprise on the flank, to spy on the movements of the enemy, like Napoleon aiming through rapid concentration to be the stronger at a given point and moment." The difference in intelligence between the fish and the chicken and between the chicken and the dog seems to be owing to differences in the structure and size of their brains. The dog has been proved to have the same capacity as man to distinguish the many thousand colors and tones and odors and tastes. He gives plain manifestation of all the emo- tions — love, fear, curiosity, joy, hope, and their op- posites — acts from imitation, sympathy, and sugges- tion, shows affection for offspring, and is capable of some reasoning and some loyalty to his master. He shows an intimate knowledge of many things about him, and understands much that is said and done by man. All this seems to be entirely owing to the qual- ity, structure and work of his brain. Edward Clodd says (Animism, page 12) : 'The nature of the apparatus in man and brute is funda- mentally identical. Let us summarize the facts about that apparatus. We know nothing of mind apart 18 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS from matter, or of matter apart from mind ; and how the passage is effected from nerve-cells to conscious- ness in animals and man remains a mystery. But we know that advance in intelligence proceeds pari passu with increasing complexity of brain-structure. This is traceable along the whole series of animals. In the invertebrates the brain is a mass of nerve gangHa near the head end of the body. The brain of an ant is one of the most marvelous atoms of mat- ter in the world, perhaps more so than the brain of a man. In the lowest vertebrate, the fish, it is very small compared with the spinal cord; in reptiles its mass increases, and in birds it is still more marked." 'In all the lower and smaller forms the surface of the brain is either smooth or evenly rounded, or ex- hibits a few grooves known as ''sulci," which separ- ate the ridges or convolutions of the substance of the brain. But in the larger mammals these grooves be- come extremely numerous, and the intermediate convolutions proportionately more complicated, un- til in the elephant, the porpoise, the higher apes, and man, the cerebral surface appears a perfect labyrinth of tortuous foldings. The surface of the brain of a monkey exhibits a sort of skeleton map of man's, and in the man-like apes the details become more and more filled in until it is only in minor char- acters that the chimpanzee's or the orang's brain can be structurally distinguished from man's (Huxley). It follows from this that if any part of the mental apparatus is injured or thrown out of gear, the re- sult is the same in each case — functional upset or suspense. The dog and the horse behave as we be- have, nor can this be otherwise, because their sense- organs report, of course with vast difference in re- sults, to their central nervous systems, the messages which are transmitted by the vibrations of the ether- eal medium and the air, and, within the limits of THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 19 their consciousness, they are affected as we are af- fected, and their actions ruled accordingly. If there is no ground for believing that a dog thinks, neither is there any for believing that he feels." ''Therefore the doctrine of Evolution admits no break in the psychical chain w^hich links him to the lowest life forms, be these plant or animal. It finds 1:10 arrest of continuity between the bark of the dog and the orations of Demosthenes, or between the pulsations of an amoeba and the ecstasies of a saint. The verdict of modern psychology is that the mind of the animal exhibits substantially the same phe- nomena which the human mind exhibits in its early stages in the child. This means that the animal has as good a right to recogntion as a mind-bearing crea- ture, so to speak, as the child ; and if we exclude him we should also exclude the child. The ability of a dog to do his own thinking is shown in the oft ob- seved fact that he will bark furiously at a dirty beg- gar but will let a well-dressed man pass him without opposition." The dogs and other beasts cannot use words and sentences for the reason that the making of words and sentences depends on the activity of certain centers in the brain and certain muscles in the throat which are not present in these animals; but though a beast cannot construct a sentence it may under- stand the meaning of one uttered repeatedly to him and associated with the act or the object symbolized by the words. This is especially true of the dog and the apes. The beast can act out a complete idea as clearly as man can phrase it in words. For instance, an ape will extend its hand for an apple and offer a leaf or stick in exchange for it. The parrot can re- peat an entire sentence, for it has the speech center in the brain and the muscles in the throat necessary for utterance, but its understanding of the meaning 20 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS of words is far below that of the dog and the ape. A dog's devotion to his master, his loyalty and gratitude is a fact beyond all doubt; and as these are the qualities which in the far higher intelligence of man enable him to worship the unseen Power who lives throughout the universe and from whom all blessings flow — in short, to have religious ideas and emotions, the dog's loyalty and gratitude may be regarded as the qualities which in man enable him to have religion. Worship in man is comprised of prayer and praise. When a dog ''begs" he prays, and when he licks his chops and wags his tail in re- turn for a bone he renders praise and thanks to his master. We see that all the higher animals begin life as an egg, a living sensitive cell, which gives us then no evidence of having any mind or consciousness; but as there develops out of this cell a being conscious of itself and the world about it, it seems reasonable to say that consciousness develops out of qualities or forces inherent in the egg-cell. Just as rough sand may when melted become a mirror which re- flects the objects about it, so the egg by a process of growth and rearrangement of the sensitive material composing it becomes an animal which is conscious of sensations of heat, light, sound, and the objects about it. Of this process which baflies all effort at explanation. Prof. Edward Grant Conklin says (Heredity and Environment, p. 75) : "The most complex of all psychic phenomena, in- deed one which includes many, if not all, the others, is consciousness. Like every other psychic process, this has undergone development in each of us; we not only came out of a state of unconsciousness but through several years we were gradually acquiring consciousness by a process of development. Whether consciousness is the sum of all the psychic faculties. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 21 or is a new product dependent upon the interaction of the other faculties, it must pass through many stages in the course of its development, stages which would be commonly counted as unconscious or sub- conscious states, and complete consciousness must depend upon the complete development and activity of the other faculties, particularly associative memory and intelligence. The question is sometimes asked whether germ cells, and indeed all living things, may not be conscious in some vague manner. One might as well ask whether water is present in hydrogen and oxygen. Doubtless the elements out cf which consciousness develops are present in the germ-cells, in the same sense that the elements of the other psychic processes or of the organs of the body are there present; not as a miniature of the adult condition, but rather in the form of elements or factors, which by a long series of combinations and transformations, due to inter-actions with one another and with the environment, give rise to the fully developed condition. 'The continuity of consciousness is associated with the continuity of organization, especially in certain parts of the brain. Certain injuries or diseases of the brain which bring about the destruction of cer- tain centers or association tracts may cause perma- nent loss of consciousness. "It is an interesting fact that in man and in several other animals which may be assumed to have a sense of identity, the nerve cells, especially those of the brain, cease dividing at an early age, and these identical cells persist throughout the remainder of life. If nerve cells continued to divide throughout life, as epithelial cells do, there would be no such persistence of identical cells, and one is free to speculate that in such cases there would be no per- sistence of the sense of identity." 22 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Though it seems to be unconscious, the plant's life is, as said before, essentially the same as that of the animals, both being composed of similar units, protoplasmic cells. The plant requires the same food elements as the animal, and, like the animal, it is sensitive to the changing about it. The plant may be said to have a rudimentary nervous system, long sensitive fibers often reaching from one part of the body to another, and certain apparently pur- poseful changes often taking place in the plant that enable it to secure some advantage, to get better light, temperature, moisture, position, etc. There is abundant evidence to prove that plants are sensi- tive to these and some other things of their sur- roundings. The following facts are sufficient to show this sensitiveness to be a real feature in the life of every plant: The growing stem of a plant will turn its apex slowly toward the source of light, and the root will change its direction to grow away from the light into the darkness. Leaves will grow so as to place them- selves across the path of a beam of light. Germinat- ing seedlings feel direction and gravity, for the stem's strive to grow vertically upwards, and the roots strive to grow vertically downwards. If the stem is bent, the roots and limbs will so grow as to balance their weight about the base of the stem. When some hard body comes in contact with the tip of a root, the growing part of the root curves, taking the young tip away from the hard body and giving it a new direction of growth. Tendrils on touching a hard body so modify their direction of growth as to twine around it. Certain flowers are so sensitive to light that they open and close daily, and some turn around daily with reference to the sun. If one pinches or strikes the leaf of a mimosa tree, he may observe the leaf quickly droop and the leaflets come THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 23 so close together that their upper surfaces touch. As darkness approaches, the leaves and leaflets of many plants droop and close, as for instance, the Demo- dium Gyrans, known as the telegaph plant. The plants that live by trapping insects are peculiarly sensitive; for instance the Venus fly-trap of the Carolinas and Florida, and the Droserae, which are scattered widely over the earth. Fig. 1 The Venus Fly Tjiap Under ordinary conditions, the end of t?ie leaf is spread out flat as in position a. The edges of the leaf are toothed; the inside is covered with hair-like projections. If these projections are touched lightly, ias with a straw, the leaf slowly- folds together as in 6, and finally as inc. If a small insect crawls on the leaf, hc is shut within. The plant absorbs food from his decaying body; after some days the leaf opens again and the thin shell of his body is all that remains. From ConUin's Heredity and Environment Thus, though the plant is not aware of self and surroundings, as is an animal when awake, it has all 24 TH EMAKING OF LIVING THINGS the sensitivity that an animal has when asleep. It is alive with the same life, but it apparently lacks consciousness. As each cell or egg is an electric battery generat- ing electric discharges by the chemical changes tak- ing place within it, the life-force seems to be derived from electric force. Some of the cells are nerve cells, and when these are so united as to become a brain, images of the outer world are made by sensations that come through the sense organs of sight, sound, etc. The life then comes into possession of aware- ness of the outer world and of self. Because of these facts the individual mind seems to be derived from powers possessed by a certain combination of living cells, and the life of the cells seems to be a derivative of powers inherent in the electrons that compose the atoms that compose the cell. If this is true, the electron is a thing that has the basis of life and mind as well as a body ; it is spiritual as well as physical. We know that it is sensitive to the presence of other electrons and to lines of mag- netic force. It is always in motion and it will always choose the best conductor and the shortest distance offered it. Further than this and the fact that it is always of the same size and physical force we know nothing of the nature of the electron. The facts above stated, however, seem to justify the conclusion that life and mind are developed from qualitites inherent in the nature of the electron. Its sensitivity and activity are those out of which the feeling, acting and thinking of the chicken, bird and dog are developed. Its sensitivity seems to be the source of sensations in the individual mind of the animals, a generalized feeling of which seeing, hear- ing, touching, tasting, smelling are specialized deriv- atives; but because all our experiences are confined to the special sensations of sight, hearing, touch. THE MAK!?^G OF LIVING THINGS 25 smell, and taste, it seems impossible for us to imagine what the general sensitivity of the electron is like. The electron is, in this view, the source of life and mind as well as a unit of mass and force. If this is true, the universe is primarily spiritual. This is what Virgil meant by the lines in Aeneid VI : **One life through all the immense creation runs. One Spirit is the moon's, the sea's the sun's ; All forms in the air that fly, on the earth that creep, And the unknown nameless monsters of the deep, Each breathing thing obeys one mind's control. And in all substance is a single Soul." In this view all nature is the embodiment of a liv- ing spiritual power, the immanent God. The Bible truly tells us in Ecclesiastes 111:20, ''All are of the dust and unto dust return again." 26 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS EPOCH. SVSTEK QUAT«RNA«V. «3^ 1» RectHT . . PLIOCeNE Testiart II. Miocene. Of Cainozoic. *ia Eocene . . 9' Cretaceous SrCONDARV & JORASSIC or Oolitic . TYPICAL FOSSILS. 7. Triassic. & Permian J 13- 5. CARBONirCUOV Primary 4. Devonian . and Eozoic. 3. Silurian . z Causrian . I. Laurentmn -_ J f^^-s^^ -?^„ f^r^'^ Man Mammoth Manlike Apes \\ ooUy Quadrupeds Whales Horses Monkeys Ance.-rorof Modern Mammals Nuramu.ites Bony-Skeletoned Fish Oaks, Maples Cover Seeded Plants Birds Bifd-Reptiles Mammals [small] Pines Firs Palm* 8ea-Lizards Reptiles. Cy cads- Land Vertebrates Horse-tails Ferns Fishes Lowest Vertebrate Huge Crustaceans Insects Ostracoderms Sea Scorpions Trilobites Club-mosses Shell-fish sponfees corals c:rustaceans Sea-weed [Algae] Stratified Rock Without fossils Table ok Stratified Rocks. The above table taken by consent from Clodd's Primer of Evolution (Longman, Green & Co.) gives a fairly correct im- pression of the strata and the first appearance of typical plants and animals. An impression of the time necessary to make all the layers of rocks may be inferred from the fact that the Tertiary Age required five million years. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 27 CHAPTER II. Life Changes Its Forms The cell, the first form of life, is the unit of life, and it is usually so small that it requires a microscope to see it. Every tissue of every plant and animal is formed of cells, which are but structures made by nature to collect and discharge the energy in the protoplasm that composes them. Some of the cells grouped into colonies, that is, lived together, and thus there began the series of many-celled plants, which evolved into ever higher forms — through bac- teria and algae to ferns, through ferns to the flower- ing plants that now cover the face of the earth with their green leaves and beautiful forms. Certain cells became animal cells. These had formed the habit of absorbing the protoplasm made by other cells and thereby lost the power to make their own protoplasm, a power which depends on the possess- ion of a green coloring matter (chlorophyl), whose origin is unknown. These, too, in the course of time grouped into col- onies that lived together and were dependent on one another, and thus there began the series of many- celled animals, which also evolved into ever more complex forms — through such lowly forms as the one-celled amoeba to the many-celled animals, the worms, insects, fishes, serpents, birds and mammals, the evolution proceeding always to forms with a better adaptation to the environment, till the form of man was reached, the climax, so far, of evolution. This evolution of living matter has been in progress above a hundred million years, for we find fossils of forms of life in strata of rocks which were laid as sediment in the oceans as long ago as that, the oldest 28 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS J. g C S O 2. > O ^ 0) Oh k- ; p ^ P' c -s i; M Z Sec 5^P a; 35 C S S ,^ o THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 29 rocks laid containing the simplest, least complex forms. We find that the fossils of crustaceans and molluscs always appear in strata of rocks laid be- fore the strata that contain the forms of animals next higher, the fishes. The fishes are always found in strata below those that contain the amphibians and serpents, and these latter are found below strata containing fossils of birds and mammals. The earliest known bird, the most ancient feath- ered winged thing, is the archaeopteryx, which is found as fossil in the rocks of the chalk period, the last of the Mesozoic Age. In size it was about like our crow, but it had teeth and a tail like a reptile. This was probably the progenitor of all the ten thousand species of birds now living. There are also found in the chalk period and the triassic and Juras- sic periods just before the chalk period the progeni- tor of all the species of mammals now living. This, the dromatherium, is, like the archaeopteryx, long ago extinct, but its fossil remains show it to have been an animal about the size of a mouse, utterly in- significant in size as compared with the tremendous reptiles that then swam in the seas, walked on the land, or flew through the air (pterodactyls). Be- tween its scales grew hairs and its teeth were dis- tinctly different from those of the reptiles. This lit- tle animal remained small and insignificant long ages but developed into forms which in the geologic ages above the chalk strata, the eocene of the Caen- ozoic (recent life), became the ancestor of all the modernized mammals, the cat, horse, dog, etc. It was during the chalk period that trees like the willow, the beech, the poplar and sassafras, that could lose their leaves in cold weather, came into existence. During previous ages all plants were evergreen, for warm and moist atmosphere covered the earth from pole to pole and made possible the 30 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS dense growth of immense ferns and clubmosses which made the coal measures. The climatic conditions of the chalk era of the Mesozoic Age came to be more nearly like those of the present, and the reptiles, which could not be active in cold weather, because their blood would grow cold with their surroundings, diminished in numbers and in size. Now they are few and insignificant and live mainly in the tropics. The feathers of the birds and their persistently warm blood (105 to 110 degrees) and the hair of the mam- mals and their persistently warm blood (981/2 de- grees) enabled them to live in climates that were sometimes very cold. As a result, while the reptiles were dying out or becoming smaller, their feathered and hairy cousins grew more numerous and larger. Lizards once seventy feet long became extinct or dwindled away in size to their descendants now seen. Mammals during this time have formed about six thousand species and many of them have large bod- ies. The whale, for instance, once a hairy land quadruped but now adapted to life in the ocean, is the largest animal that has ever lived on the earth. As the earth developed its diversified conditions of cold and warm, marsh-land and dry-land, upland and lowland, forms of birds and mammals would change correspondingly till they were fitted to live in their various habitats. In the later part of the period forms of birds and beasts began to assume shapes found in the eocene strata above, where we find, as has been stated, fossil remains of animals now known to be the ancestors of all the great fam- ilies of mammals, the cat, horse, hog, dog, etc. Bones of lemurs, the lowest form of monkey, are found in eocene strata computed to have been laid three mil- lions of years ago ; bones of manlike apes, (gibbons, orangoutangs, gorillas, and chimpanzees) appear in Miocene strata laid one million years ago. Geolo- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 31 Carnivorous dinosaur (Allosaurus) of the Upper Jurassic period of Nortli America. The skeleton was found nearlj^ complete" in Wyoming. Near it was discovered a portion of the slceleton of a giant herbivorous dinosaur (Brontosaurus) It was observed tliat ten of tlie caudal vertebrae of the latter skeleton bore tooth marks and grooves corresponding exactly with the sharp-pointed teeth in the jaw of the carnivorous dinosaur. By consent of Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition. gists estimate that it has been about five hundred thousand years since the pliocene strata were laid in which the bones of man first appear. The thickness of the earth-crust composing the various strata of sedimentary rocks and the amount 32 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS of their elevated surfaces worn away by water and ice and wind and frost make with certain other facts reliable though rough guides by which to estimate the length of time since forms of life now found as fossils were laid in the strata on the earth's surface. Basing their calculations on the observed rate of these processes, geologists estimate the length of time that has elapsed since the early mammals, the ancestors of modern mammals, came into existence as not less than three millions nor more than six mil- lions of years. This is known in geology as the Caen- ozoic Age, and as this is estimated to be one- twentieth of the whole time since the first fossil- bearing rocks were laid, we get the hundred million years stated above as the probable length of time since life appeared on the earth. As stated, most re- cent geologists believe that a far greater length of time than this has elapsed since the first living form came into existence. All the evolution of forms of life from the simple cell of a hundred million years ago into the fish and the higher forms since — some becoming extinct, others persisting till the present age, when we cata- logue six hundred thousand living species of animals and five hundred thousand living species of plants — all this evolution of forms of life has been the work of the laws of nature which achieve every phase of this ever changing universe. The new forms have come into being sometimes by sudden leaps, some- times by gradual changes, but always and every- where as the result of a natural process, of the forces of heredity and environment. A change in the environment may affect the growth of parts of an individual, even the structure of the germ cells, and those advantageous varieties of his form that are inherited by him and trans- mitted to descendants will make his line persist. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 33 while those forms that are without adaptation to the environment will become extinct. The forces of heredity are organized in the egg or seed, which must grow into the size, shape, parts, color, and mental traits of its own ancestry, and in going from the egg to the adult stage it must grow into every form in the line of development through which its own ancestry passed. All the insects, for instance, now pass in the life of each individual from the egg, one-celled stage, into a worm before they become the flies, crickets, grasshoppers, bees, ants, etc., which they are as adult forms. This is because it was from, worms that the insects evolved; because the adult stage of their ancestry was once worms. Man, to take another instance, begins his individual life as one cell, an egg, which grows into forms of fish, amphib- ian, and hairy mammal in his mother's womb before he becomes the form of man he has at birth. Even after his birth he has in his body organs now useless which were useful to his ancestry of lowlier form of life — ^the membrane used for wiping off the eye, called the third eyelid and plainly to be seen as folded at the angle formed by the junction of the eyelids near the nose, the pineal body in the lower middle part of the brain which is the rudiment of an eye that was in the head of a fish ancestor, the appendix in the abdomen, so often the cause of death, which was to some ancestor of lower stage a useful organ of digestion, as it now is in the rabbit and other animals, the muscles for moving the ear and the skin, the series of small bones at the end of the spinal column, and other structures now deca- dent in man's body. The chick, to take still another instance, when taken from an egg incubated for three days, is found to be strictly like the fish in many respects. It has gill slits and gill arches and entire circulatory system and brain that is fishlike 34 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS in form and structure. These instances show be- yond a doubt that from ovum to adult we trace forms of ancestry. Conklin, in ''Heredity and Environment," says: **One of the greatest and most far-reaching themes which has ever occupied the minds of men is the problem of development. Whether it be the de- velopment of an animal from an egg, of a race or species from a pre-existing one, or of the body, mind and institutions of man, this problem is every- where much the same in fundamental principles, and knowledge gained in one of these fields must be of value in each of the others. Ontogeny, the life history of the individual, and phylogeny, the life his- tory of the ancestral line, are not wholly distinct phenomena, but are only two aspects of the one general process of organic development. The evo- lution of races and of species is sufficiently rare and unfamiliar to attract much attention and serious thought, while the development of an individual is a phenomenon of such universal occurrence that it is taken as a matter of course by most people — some- thing so evident that it seems to require no explana- tion; but familiarity with the fact of development does not remove the mystery which lies back of it, though it may make plain some of the many pro- cesses concerned. The development of a human be- ing, of a personality, from a germ cell is the climax of all wonders — greater even than that involved in the evolution of species or in the making of a world." ''The fertilized egg fuses with no other cells, it takes into itself no living substance from without, but manufactures its own protoplasm from food substances; it receives food and oxygen from with- out and it gives out carbonic acid and other waste products, it is sensitive to certain alterations in the environment such as thermal, chemical and electri- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 35 cal changes — it is, in short, a distinct living thing, an individuality. Under proper environmental con- ditions this fertilized egg cell develops, step by step, without the addition of anything from without ex- cept food, water, oxygen, and such other raw mater- ials as are necessary to the life of any adult animal, into the immensely complex body of a starfish, a frog or a man. At the same time, from the relatively simple reactions and activities of the fertilized egg there develops, step by step, without the addition of anything from without except raw materials and environmental stimuli, the multifarious activities, reactions, instincts, habits and intelligence of the mature animal." "Is not this miracle of development more wonder- ful than any possible miracle of creation? And yet as one watches this marvelous process by which the fertilized egg grows into the embryo, and this into the adult each step appears relatively simple, each perceptible change is minute, but the changes are innumerable and unceasing, and in the end they ac- complish this miracle of transforming the fertilized egg cell into the fish, or frog, or man — a thing which would be incredible were it not for the fact that it has been seen by hundreds of observers and can be verified at any time by those who will take the trouble to study the process for themselves." Changes in the environment or within the body of an individual may produce changes in the egg which will make variations from his form in his descend- ants, and if the new forms are better fitted to live in the environment they become permanent varieties in the plant or animal world, the less adapted forms becoming extinct in competition with them for food and place. Thus the form of every animal and plant is a growth from forces in the egg or seed and is an ad- 36 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS justment to its method of living — the activities neces- sary to get food, the needed quality and quantity of food, the air, the soil, the water, the heat, the light and the other things needed from its environment. Thus heredity and environment are the tvv^in crea- tors of all forms of all living things upon the earth ; thus the natural laws which moulded the earth into a sphere have shaped the form and made the quali- ties of every living thing upon its surface. Thus in- stead of all the varied forms of life now on earth being independent special creations, they are lineal descendants from other forms that existed in pre- vious geologic ages, all of which forms were them- selves derived from the simple cells created by natural processes many millions of years ago. The struggle for life b3^ all born to every species has re- sulted in the natural extinction of those poorly en- dowed and the natural survival of those born with superior qualities of body and mind. This natural selection worked for the good of each succeeding generation and so for the good of each being that now lives. And instead of concluding that the varied forms of life now on earth are the final and finished creations of God, the facts lead us to believe that the highest forms now existing will have in distant futurity descendants endowed yet more highly and in different ways. What these higher powers and better forms will be we can not foretell, any more than monkeys could foresee the coming of apes and man, but it seems reasonable to believe that the now dominant types of the most common and widely spread species will furnish the parent stocks for the improved forms. There is, as Darwin said sixty years ago, **a grand- eur in this view of life, with its several powers hav- ing been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 37 has gone cycling on according to the fixed law ox gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been and are being evolved." Fifty years after Darwin, the president of the American Society for the advancement of science expressed the same view as follows: ''You nor I, I dare say, will hesitate to maintain that the primor- dial amoeba (if we may so dub the earliest of our ancestors) embodied in some sense or other all the potentialities, for better or for worse, that are real- ized before us at this moment." John Burroughs, in Yale Review, October, 1914, says: "In the light of what he knows of the past history of the earth, the man of science sees with his mind's eye the successive changes that have taken place in it; he sees the globe a mass of incan- descent matter rolling through space; he sees the crust cooling and hardening; he sees the waters ap- pear, the air and soil appear, he sees the clouds be- gin to form and the rain to fall, he sees living things appear in the waters, then upon the land, and in the air; he sees the two forms of life arise, the vegetable and the animal, the latter standing upon the former; he sees more and more complex forms of both vege- table and animal arise and cover the earth. They all appear in the course of the geologic ages on the surface of the earth; they arise out of it; they are a part of it; they come naturally; no hand reaches down from heaven and places them there ; they are not an addendum; they are not a sudden creation; they were potential in the earth before they arose out of it. The earth ripened, her crust mellowed, and thickened, her airs softened and cleared, her waters were purified, and in due time her finer fruits were evolved, and, last of all, man arose. It was all one process. There was no miracle, no first day of 38 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS creation. Brooded by the sun, the earth hatched her offspring; the promise and the potency of all terrestrial life was in the earth herself; her womb was fertile from the first. All that we call the spirit- ual, the divine, the celestial, were hers, because man is hers. Our religions and our philosophies and our literatures are hers ; man is a part of the whole sys- tem of things ; he is hers as the rains, the dews, the flowers, the rocks, the soil, the trees, are hers. He appeared when the time was ripe, and he will dis- appear when the time is over-ripe. He is of the same stuff as the ground he walks upon ; there is no better stuff in the heavens above him, nor in the depths be- low him, than sticks to his own ribs. The celestial and the terrestrial forces unite and work together in him, as in all other creatures. We can not magni- fy man without magnifying the universe of which he is a part; and we can not belittle it without be- littling him.*' THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 39 CHAPTER III. The Forms of Life After the earth's crust had hardened and the gases of hydrogen and oxygen above it in the prim- ordial atmosphere and within it in the vapor from hot springs had so combined as to form the water that became oceans, rivers, etc., there came a time when the conditions at some place forced certain materials to combine in such a way as to form a liv- ing organism, a cell, a microscopic individual, float- ing in the water and absorbing certain chemical compounds found in the water and the soil about it, thus repairing the loss and waste of substance due to its activities. This cell ever and anon divided it- self, so that one cell became two cells. It is probable that this birth of the cell took place on the conti- nents, either in the moist crevices of rocks or soils in the fresh waters of continental pools, or in the slightly saline waters of the bordering primordial seas. This first of living things (and still the first stage of everything living, for the egg is but a cell) was composed of ten of the eighty-three elements whose atoms compose everything on the earth or in the heavens. These ten elements— carbon, hydro- gen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, iron, etc. — are com- bined in such a way as to make the cell which has those properties called life. These elements — car- bon, oxygen, etc. — are constantly being taken in by the living cell from the world about it, and, after being used in the making of the life force, they re- turn to the inorganic world from which they had been taken Some animals, like the amoeba, are made of only one cell ; some plants are made of only 40 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS aia^K?^ « *'^ - w =*5 J * - H ^ < 32 Id O ; -/>-■ < o O /:-^t->~5r- m ^3^ < THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 41 one cell, as yeast and bacteria; but most animals and plants are composed of billions of cells, which are combined in such a way as to make their tissues and organs. A man is composed of about four hundred billion cells, the cells forming the different organs and tissues being of different shapes and qualities. There are more than five billion cells in his brain. As has been said, there are ten elements always in every living cell, and this is true whether the cell be that of a plant or of an animal. These elements are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, iron, sulphur, potas- sium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and nitro- gen. Without each and all these combined in a cell, which usually is of microscopic size, there is no life. The cell must have originally been formed in water, probably in the pores of well-watered soil. By com- bination of cells larger and higher forms of life came into being. Later the plant came to grow in soil and air, taking carbon and oxygen and the other ele- ment from the soil in water absorbed by its roots. The nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., now composing the cells must have been in the soil about the roots and dissolved in the water. The action of purely natural laws makes from these ten elements a structure called a cell, which feels and strives for warmth and light and food and which divides to become two cells. The unit of life, then, is the cell, which is a single mass of living matter with a central portion called a nucleus. Every plant and animal is either one cell or a colony of cells; every tissue of bone and muscle and nerve of the highest animal is composed of cells; the first stage in the life history of the highest ani- mal is a cell (egg). Since 1838, when Theodor Schwann discovered that all the plants and animals are composed of cells. 42 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS each of which is a living unit with its own nucleus, every possible effort has been made to find its na- ture and structure. From this research the follow- ing facts have been discovered : Each cell is a tiny individual mass of protoplasm with its own nucleus. Though the nucleus is made of protoplasm it differs chemically and structurally from the rest of the cell and contains certain bodies called chromosomes (color-bearing bodies), which, in the seed or eggy are now known to carry the de- terminers of the form into which it will grow by a process of repeated division whenever the seed or egg is fertilized by the appropriate pollen or semen. These color-bearing bodies, the chromosomes, bear the specific energies which force the seed or egg to develop into the qualities of the parents, determin- ing the seed of the apple to become an apple tree like its parent, the egg of the chicken to become a chicken like its parent. The chromosomes are not only carriers of the hereditary qualities, but there is an "accessory chromosome" that determines sex. When a sperm cell unites with egg the latter begins to grow. When the cell grows to a certain size, it The cell, showing changes in the nucleus in several stages befere it becomes two cells. divides or splits so as to become two cells, the nu- cleus dividing first and each of the chromosomes THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 43 c?plitting lengthwise, so that each of the daughter cells has its own chromosomes that determine its further growth. This wonderful process, known as fission, is shown in its different stages in the dia- gram, in which we see the chromosomes of the nu- cleus of the fertilized egg cell (A) rearrange them- selves in B, C, D, and E, and divide into two separate cells in F. As the cell is both the unit of life and the basis of heredity, securing the latter by the division of the nucleus in which there are material particles that determine the growth and the development to be similar to that of the ancestry, the author begs the reader's indulgence for continuing yet farther a dis- cussion of it in this brief treatise. Only those who know something of the cell can have any conception of the world of living things. In the figure presented of the cell we see the dif- ferent stages of the process by which one cell divides to become two, and we can see in the nucleus a rough sketch of what a very high power microscope shows to the observer, to wit: the chromosomes, which are made up of the infinitesimal particles that are deter- miners of the course of development that leads to an adult form similar to that of the ancestry. The chromosomes contain the infinitesimal bodies of energy, the inheritance units, that determine the tallness, color of skin, species, structure of brain, hair, eyes, etc , of the adult form. One of these chromosomes is known to determine what sex the organism will be. Conklin (op. cita) says: "Every cell in the body comes from a preceding cell by a process of division, and germ cells are formed by a division of preceding cells which are derived from the fertilized egg. The hen does not produce the egg, but the egg produces the hen and also the other eggs. Individual traits are not trans- 44 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS mitted from the hen to the egg, but they develop out of germinal factors which are carried along from cell to cell, and from generation to generation." Fig. 10. Successive Stages in the Cleavage and Gastrulation of AmpMoxus. A, one cell ; B, two cells ; C and D, four cells ; E, eight cells ; F, sixteen cells ; O, Jblastula stage of about ninety-six cells ; H, section through the same showing the cleavage cavity ; /, blastula seen from the left side showing three zones of cells, viz., an upper clear zone of ectoderm, a middle (faintly shaded) zone of mesoderm and a lower (deeply shaded) zone of entoderm cells; From Conklin's Heredity avd Environment. The cells are of various shapes and sizes. Each tissue of the plant and animal has its cells shaped differently from the other tissues; and as to size, though some few cells are large enough to be seen THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 45 with the naked eye, almost all of them are micro- scopic. Some cells ,the bacteria, are so minute that several million of them may be placed on the period mark used in the punctuation of this page. No mat- ter how minute the cell, it is composed of proto- plasm, and always has the same four qualities of sensibility, motion, growth, and reproduction. The combination of these qualities is what we call ''life." The diverse shapes and sizes of the plants and animals now living in the world may be realized as we read from Huxley's 'The Physical Basis of Life" the following: 'Think of the microscopic fungus — a mere infinitesimal ovoid particle — which finds space and duration enough to multiply into count- less millions in the body of a living fly; and then of the wealth of foliage, the luxuriance of flower and fruit, which lies between this bald sketch of a plant and the giant pine of California, towering to the di- mensions of a cathedral spire, or the Indian fig, which covers acres with its profound shadow, and endures while nations and empires come and go round its vast circumference. Or, turning to the other half of the world of life, picture to yourselves the great finner whale, hugest of beasts that live or have lived, disporting his enormous length (eighty or ninety feet) of bone, muscle and blubber, with easy roll, among the waves in which the stoutest ship that ever left the dockyard would flounder help- lessly; and contrast him with the invisible animal- cules — mere gelatinous specks, multitudes of which could, in fact, dance upon the point of a needle. With these images before your mind, you may well ask what community lof form or structure there is between the animalcule and the whale or between the fungus and the fig-tree?" The answer is that each is composed of living cells and that all living cells are composed of protoplasm. 46 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS The protoplasm is now known to be composed of three chemical compounds, protein, carbohydrate, and hydro-carbon, in which are found carbon, hydro- gen, oxygen and nitrogen ; and relatively small quan- tities of phosphorus, common salt, calcium, magnes- ium, potassium, and iron. All the properties of the living cell seem to be due to the combination of the three compounds, protein, carbohydrate, and hydro- carbon, into protoplasm, "the physical basis of life/' It is so highly complex and unstable that the chem- ists have, not yet been able to make out a complete description of its structure, or even a complete formula of it as a compound. Two facts seem to indicate the fundamental same- ness of all life; first, that no life is found except along with a cell made of protop:asm, and second, all protoplasm, whether in plants or in animals, is the same in appearance. It is always colorless, al- ways liquid, always nearly transparent, and always resembles the white of an egg in thickness. Living protoplasm has, however, the remarkable ability to behave differently under different conditions even though it is always the same. It is the protoplasm in the tip of the stem of a plant that makes it bend toward the light, and it is the protoplasm in the tip of the root of a plant that makes it grow from the light. It is the activity of protoplasm which makes such widely different things as sugar, fat, perspir- ation, and the material in the shells of oysters, clams, etc. It will move from the extremes of heat and cold. It will move toward an object of like temperature and like chemical composition with it- self. As already stated, the earliest and lowest form of a living thing was the cell, which floated, fed and reproduced itself in the water. From this earliest living individual have come all the complex and THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 47 varied forms that we have on the earth — all the plants and animals that made up the myriads that have come into being and ceased to be except as fossils in the rocks here and there, and those other myriads that now teem the ocean and cover the plains and mountains with their sensitive bodies. From the cell to the most complex of these forms, from protozoon to man, we trace in successive layers of rock the rise of new kinds of plants and animals in lineal descent from similar and simpler forms that preceded them. In this historic sequence we are now able to see the main road which the creation of living things has traveled from protozoon to man; as also we are able to see the many roads that branched from it to become insect or bird or beast. This grand view of creation which has come from his study of forms of fossil life found in the rocks, as well as those forms that now live, is one of the high- est achievements of the intellect of man. As we look about us, we see that living things are of myriad forms, each reproducing its own kind. We see that some forms are adapted to land, others to the sea. Some of these forms have few similarities, as the elephant and the insect; others have many similarities, as the cat and the lion. These similari- ties lead us to classify the plants and animals. Con- fining our attention to animals, we find that all spec- ies of man, apes and monkeys are classed together by all naturalists, and called primates; cats, leop- ards, tigers and lions form another group by reason of their manifest similarities; the dogs, the wolves, the foxes, and the hyenas are in another group ; bears and racoons are in another; seals and walruses are in another. The last five groups mentioned are put together in a class called camivora, because they are flesh eaters. Rats, rabbits, and squirrels, etc., gnaw their food and are classed as rodents. 48 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Horses, hogs, deer, elephants, camels, tapirs, rhi- noceroses, etc., are similar in having hoofs, and so are in the same class the ungulates. As all the fore- going have hair and suckle their young, they are all mammals. All those animals that fly in the air and have feathers are birds. Those that have backbones and live in the water (except the whale, porpoise, dolphin, which are mammals, and a few others) are fishes. Living in either water or air are the amphib- ia — the frogs, salamanders, etc. Dissimilar as are all these classes of animal forms — the primates, the carnivora, rodents, ungulates, birds, fishes, and am- phibia, they are all similar in having a backbone, and so they are all classed together as vertebrates. Developing from primitive worms that lived ages before the vertebrates were created are hundreds of thousands of species of animals with so many similarities that we cal them all insects. Also de- veloping from primitive worms are forms such as crabs, crawfish, and the crustaceans. Below these in descending scale are the worms, the polyps, the hydras, the sponges and lowest of all, the one-celled animals like the amoeba, which is but a mass of protoplasm enclosing a nucleus; it has no covering or skin, and is about one one-hundredth of an inch in diameter. The kinship of all the varieties of insects is set forth by Crampton as follows: (The Doctrine of Evo- lution) "Butterflies, beetles, bees, and grasshoppers seem at first sight to be entirely different, even though they agree in being more or less segmented. But all of them have heads with four pairs of ap- pendages of the same essential plan, a middle thor- acic region of three segments more or less united, bearing three pairs of legs, and usually two pairs of wings, while the hinder part is a freely joined abdo- men without real limbs. In these respects the count- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 49 less varieties of insects agree ; so that they also, like Crustacea of various kinds, seem to have been de- rived from wormlike animals with more simply seg- mented bodies. Indeed, spiders and scorpions and their relatives of the group arachnida prove for simi- lar reasons to be derivatives from the same original stock and own cousins of the insects." The kinship of all the varieties of backboned ani- mals is set forth by Prof. William Patten (Pop. Sci. Monthly, May, 1913,) as follows: ''The vertebrates form an essentially continuous, united group, for the differences between the most widely separated members, as for example, a fish and a human being, are differences in degree, not in kind ; differences in the details of the structure, and in the relative loca- tion and size of organs and parts of organs, or in the measure of their functions; none whatever in their serial location, in their fundamental structure, or in their mode of growth. Every important part, for example, of the digestive, excretory and repro- ductive system, and of the skull, nose, eye, ear, heart, and brain of a fish is easily recognized by the trained anatomist in the corresponding organs of man." Plants are not less alive than animals, though they are not apparently aware of their existence. They are sensitive in every cell just as an animal is, though not sensible of their own existence as the higher animals are during their waking hours. The con- dition of a higher animal asleep is similar to that of the plant — for he is then a living, sensitive individ- ual, without awareness of itself or its surroundings. Awareness seems to come into being as the work of the nervous system with its brain that thinks. Apart from brain action there is in living things only sensi- tiveness — a quality which the plant has. The plant is certainly sensitive to light, heat, gravity, moisture. 50 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS The mimosa closes its leaves on being touched. Some plants droop and close as darkness approaches. Nor are plants less interesting than animals in the forms which they assume, for we can find relationship among those forms just as we traced it in the world in some paragraphs above. Here, too, we find that those which resemble each other most are nearst kin. Though the life-force in the plant and in the ani- mal is the same, the plant world differs from the animal in that the plant cell alone has the power to convert lifeless matter into living matter — to manu- facture protoplasm from the mineral world, from the water, salts, gases, etc., absorbed by its roots and leaves. The plant does this by its as yet unexplained power of making a green coloring matter, called chlorophyl, which can absorb certain rays of the sun and can break up the water absorbed by its roots and carbon dioxid taken into its leaves to be hydro- gen, oxygen and carbon, and then set free the oxy- gen, but retain the carbon and hydrogen, locked to- gether as hydro-carbon. Thus the plant drinks with its roots and eats with its leaves, and stores up energy for its own use and that of the animal, which does not have the power to do this, but must feed upon that made by the plant. We observe that all plants may be assigned to one of two classes — the seed plants, having flowers and the spore plants, having no flowers. The seed plants, with their wealth of beautiful leaves and flowers, make the familiar objects of woods and fields, but the spore plants, many of which are micro- scopic, are more numerous than they. These spore plants include the bacteria, the fungi, the algae, the yeasts, the lichens, and the ferns. The fungi — ^the mushrooms, molds, mildews, rusts — have an enor- mous number of species. They have no green color- ing matter and are dependent on other plants or up- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 51 on animals for their carbon. Their ancestry is un- known. Their bodies consist of threads which de- velop active ferments that enable them to penetrate wood or the hard surface of insects. The algae, of which there are sixteen thousand or more varieties, feome less than one-millionth of an inch in size, others being the giant seaweed of a hundred yards in length, the kelp, have the power to make chlorophyll and are probably the oldest of the plants. Probably descended from the green algae of fresh water are the ferns, which with giant horsetails and clubmosses well nigh covered the earth during the early time known as the Carboniferous Age, and produced most of the vegetable matter that formed the coal beds whose contents are now made to furnish us the heat and power derived from the sun and locked up very many millions of years ago. We observe further that all the seed plants may be assigned to one of two classes — those which are naked-seeded and those which are cover-seeded. The naked-seeded are more nearly related to the ferns than are the cover-seeded ones,and they are all descended from common ancestry. They include the pines, firs, larches, cedars, cypresses, cycadsand gingkos. The cover-seeded are also no doubt all descended from a common stock, though some are tiny water plants, others are ordinary weeds, and others are giant trees that live hundreds of years. What this common stock was is not determined. It may not be preserved as a fossil. There are two classes of the cover-seeded plants — ^those with single seed-leaf and those with double seed-leaf. The single seed-leaf plants have parallel veined leaves and they do not have rings to show annual growth. They include the large families known as the palm and the lily and the grass, the latter including maize, wheat, barley, oats, rice, and other foods of man. 52 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS The double seed-leaf plants have the net veined leaves and they have the annual rings of growth. They include all the highest varieties, the birch and the alder, the poplar and the oak, the daisy family and the rose family. The last mentioned includes not only the queen of flowers but also the most valu- able variety of fruits. The strawberry and the apple, the blackberry and the raspberry, the hawthorn, the cherry and the pear are all members of the rose family. The double seed-leaf plants do not make their ap- pearance till just before the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic Age. This completes a general survey of the plant world. We observe that all the seed plants have a similar way of perpetuating their species by organs known as flowers, some of which are highly colored while others are not. We find these plants that have high colored flowers depend on insects for their fertilization, while those without highly colored flowers depend on the wind or the water. In one common variety of aquatic plants the male flower, on maturing, rises to the surface of the water, where it floats and comes in contact with the female flower, which, on receiving the pollen, sinks to the bottom, where the seeds ripen. Flowers are now among the chief ornaments of the earth, but it seems that the earliest flowers were colorless, the color developing as a correlation to the insect world, whose eyes would be surer to find the plant with its flowers most highly colored. It will be of value to us to state the classification that includes all the plants and animals of the world, even though we repeat some things already said. There are four divisions of the plant world. First: The plants without reproductive organs. These multiply by division of one into two, or by ''spores." They include bacteria, yeasts, molds, THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 53 vr«» COM0OSlTCt (0«.««,OA>iik) 0*H». NtTTUt Pints, LuneMW PreftioopHYTcs FcRNs _ iLlvtRWOKtt OftYOPHVTES J I I Mossis Thaluopmytes ECHINODCRMATA k-ROTOPLASM . plus CMi.O«ft»KY»,» From Clodd's Primer of Evolution. J)1AGRAM OF DEVELOPMENTS The ascent of the higher life-forms from the lower is more later- al than the lines indicate, but the diagram is only a rough attempt to show the relative places of the leading groups. mushrooms, algae, fungi, lichens, and sea-weeds. There are 16,000 species of algae, 55,000 species of fungi, 5,600 species of lichens. Lichens are com- posedof algae and fungi living together. The num- ber of yeasts and bacteria is not estimated. The yeasts, bacteria, molds and blue-green algae are all over the earth. Bacteria are by the millions in every teaspoonful of warm, moist soil, and in all seas and oceans and rivers. Algae swarm all the waters. The green material on the north side of trees and fences and the green scum of ponds are algae. Second : Moss plants. These are green and have reproductive organs, and leafy stems and organs similar to roots, but no true roots and stems and veins. There are 16,500 species of mosses. These include the liverworts. Third : The fern plants. These have roots, stems, and leaves but no flowers and seeds. There are 54 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 3,500 species. They range in size from a little epi- phyte, one-third of an inch high to gigantic tree ferns eighty feet or more high. Fourth: The seed plants. These have seeds and flowers, and they embrace most of the vegetation of the earth, its herbs, shrubs and trees. There are over one hundred thousand kinds of seed plants described by the botanists, who divide them into two groups — those whose seeds are naked, inmmensely abundant in earlier geologic ages, but now having four hundred species, the pines and their allies; and those whose seeds are covered in closed capsules and now predominating in the plant king- dom, the true flowering plants. There are ten divisions in the animal world. First: Protozoa. These are one-celled animals and are usually of microscopic size. They have no organs, and reproduce by self-division. They in- clude the amoeba, the Paramecium, globigerina, and many other forms. Many of these secrete shells of carbonate of lime. In many forms the surface is pierced by fine pores (foramina). Second : The Porif era. These are the sponges, which are composed of many cells and have a body in which there is a complex set of canals into which water enters. They abound in all sea formation from the Cambrian period to the present. There are a great many species. Third : The Coelenterata. These are composed of many cells and include the corals, jelly fishes, anem- ones, and medusae. Fourth: The Echinodermata. These have a tough skin and have parts radiating from a center, usually five in number, and have a mouth, alimentary canal and digestive system. The extinct fossil species of this branch outnumber many times the living species, of which the starfishes are best known. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 55 Fifth: The Worms. These include the flukes, tapeworms, pinworms, trichinae, earthworms and seaworms. They have no special sense, except that of touch, and they have no internal skeleton. Sixth: Molluscoidea. These have no heart or cir- culating system, and they multiply by budding. There are four thousand species of them, but ninety- five per cent, of them are extinct — are found only in the fossil state. The lingula is a specimen now living. Seventh: Mollusca. These include mussels, clams, oysters, snails, cuttlefishes, squids, and all one- valved shell fish. These have the special senses of touch, smell and taste, while some have eyes. Eighth: Arthropoda. These include crabs, craw- fish, shrimps, barnacles, lobsters, spiders, insects, and centipedes. Their bodies consist of rings cov- ered with a hardened cuticle, an exoskeleton. There are more species of arthropoda than of any other branch of the animal kingdom. All of the insects are six-legged arthropoda, and there are, according to estimates that seem to be conservative, 384,000 living species of insects. There are fifty thousand different species of beetles. The insects include flies, ants, bugs, bees, butterflies, moths, fleas, lice, and grasshoppers. There are 7,500 known species of ants. Ninth: Protochordata. These are soft bodied marine animals. Some like the amphioxus, are fish- like; others like the balanaglossus, are wormlike. They possess a notochord and a central system and branchial slits. The notochord is a rod of cells grow- ing lengthwise of the body, which it stiffens and sup- .ports. It is the forerunner of the backbone. Tenth: Vertebrates. These include all animals with backbone. The lowest of these are the fishes, Then come the amphibia, adapted to life in both water and air, as salamanders, frogs and the coecilia. 56 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS In the upper left hand corner is the phenacodus. (1). It is the long extinct ancestor of ci), (8). (4). (5), and (6). This picture of the phenacodua Is taken by consent from Osborn's The Age of Mam- mals. Its bones are found in eocene strata and shows the animal to be little larger than a fox. The picture of the descendants are taken from The Living Animals of the World. (Dodd, Mead & Co.) Just above the amphibia, and evolved out of them, come the reptiles, which include the turtles, alliga- tors, lizards and snakes. There are 1,925 living species of lizards and nearly 1,800 living species of snakes. Just above the reptiles, and manifestly de- scended from them, come the birds. We have fossil remains of the archaeopteryx, a reptile-bird of the THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 57 Jurassic period. There are ten thousand species of living birds. Above the birds are the mammals, the animals that suckle their young and have a covering of hair. There are six thousand species of mammals, twenty-five hundred living and thirty-five hundred extinct or fossil. The mammals are divided into twelve orders that include all species from the low- est, the egg-laying duckbill and echidna, to the high- est, the primates, that include monkeys, apes and man. This survey includes all plants and animals. It is interesting to note in passing that scientists regard the class to which the daisy belongs as the most high- ly organized of the plants, the ants as the most high- ly organized of the insects, the jay as the most high- ly organized of the birds, the cat as the highest of the carnivora, and man as the most highly organized of the mammals. These plants and animals occupy various areas. Some, like man, the cat family and various birds, have distributed themselves widely from the place of their origin to most parts of the earth, but others are still in the limited range where they developed. For instance, many species of ani- mals and plants in Australia — the kangaroos, wom- bats, duckbills, echidnas, etc., are found nowhere else on the globe. The birds native to Africa are all entirely different from those native to South Am- erica. The Azores and the Sandwich Islands were without frogs, snakes and mammals, except the bat, for the reason that only flying animals could cross the expanse of water surrounding them. For a like reason Ireland has no snakes, while England has the viper and a few other varieties. Ireland was separ- ated from England long ages before England was separated from the continent, and before snakes had migrated there. This fact, the earlier separation of Ireland from England by a wide expanse before Eng- 58 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS land was so separated from the continent, explains the interesting circumstances that only twenty spe- cies of mammals are native to Ireland, while there are forty species native to England and ninety spe- cies to Germany. It seems now quite clear that plants and animals often migrated from the locali- ties in which they had developed. The forms would differ under the different conditions found in differ- ent areas — and migrations would be limited by such natural barriers as high mountains or wide waters. Australia was separated millions of years ago by thousands of miles of water from any of the conti- nents and it presents some features of special signifi- bance to the student of evolution. Of its 10,000 Species of plants only a very few are found else- where and these few, like the fern, lily, tulip and honeysuckle, are very different in aspect from what they are elsewhere in the world. Their trees are those of a by gone age, the Jurassic, which elsewhere have disappeared forever to make way for the high- er forms, the elm, niaples, oaks, and other varieties familiar to us. Its eucalyptus trees, some of which hre 300 feet high, and the Kauri tree, which is twenty feet in diameter and has a straight columnar trunk 180 feet to the first branch, and also grows 300 feet high; are distinct features of the plant .life. The animals are also distinct from the rest of the world. As the barrier of water between Australia and the other continents was there before cats, Swine; hbrses, Cattle; sheep, elephants, camels, rats, rabbits, bears, monkeys, etc., had originated, none of these animals are there; but as the barriers of water did not cut Australia off until after the begin- ning of the Age of Mammals it holds and preserves the primitive types, the Monotremes, of which the platypus and echidna of Australia are the only speci- mens now living. The platypus is web-footed, has a THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 59 bill like a duck and has hair. It lays eggs and suckles its young. The great animal groups — the lizards, tortoises, birds, snakes, fishes, crabs, etc., which were in existence before the land bridge to other continents was destroyed — are also in Aus- tralia. It has a hundred species of snakes, three hundred and nienteen species of lizards, and seven hundred seventy-five species of birds, among these the lyre birds and the emu and cassowary. It is true that two higher mammals, a species of man, the blackfellow, and a wild dog, the dingo, are in Australia, but these must have traversed the water barriers, probably at the same time, and that within two or three hundred thousand years past. The blackfellow is the lowest type of man living. He has a cranial capacity of 75 as compared with 83 for the African negro. He wears scant clothing and this is usually of bark of trees or skins of kangaroo. He makes no house and no pottery and knows no agriculture. In fact he is in the paleolithic stage and enables us to see how our own ancestors lived a hudred thousand years ago. Anthropologists say that he is related to the yeddahs of Ceylon and the Dravidian races of southern India. Though, as his name, Blackfellow, indicates, his skin is dark, his hair is wavy or curly, not wooly or frizzy and he is from the same ancestors as the Caucasian race, but seems to be incapable of progress to higher culture. In Tasmania, southeast of Australia, there lived yet another race of people who became extinct in 1865. These had wooly hair. It is also interesting to note that all individuals of all the various forms of life have a specific length of life which they may attain under favorable con- ditions, and then they die. Each is so constituted that it ceases to live after a certain length of time, as a clock ceases to run after so many days from the 60 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS time it is wound up. In the single celled varieties, as the amoeba, a few hours or a few days is the nor- mal limit of the life of an individual, which ceases to exist either by division into two daughter cells or by dissolution after death. In the insect world the duration of life from the hatching of an egg to the death of the adult varies from four or five weeks, as in plant lice, to seventeen years as in the cicada, falsely called the locust of America, which lives seventeen years as a *'grub" worm, and only one month as a winged, singing ''locust." The mayfly, or any of the ephemerida, lives only a day after it emerges with wings in its adult stage. Most butter- flies live less than one year from the hatching of the egg into a caterpillar. The worker bee lives four months; the queen bee lives two or three years. Some worms live only a week. The length of life of most fishes is not yet made out, but there is reason to believe that many of them live for centuries. Fishes and reptiles continue to grow as long as they live, their duration being as a rule longer than birds and mammals. Salmon live to the age of a hundred years, carp to a hundred and fifty, and pike to two hundred years. Eels have been kept in aquaria sixty years. Toads live thirty years. Small land tortoises have been kept in captivity over a century. Certain of the immense tortoises of the Gallapagos Islands are known to be more than two centuries old. Small birds live from eight to twenty-five years; gulls forty years; ducks, geese, peafowls and ost- riches fifty years; ravens and crows and owls sixty years; swans seventy years; parrots eighty years; eagles and falcons more than a hundred years. Among mammals rats and mice live to five or six years; rabbits and squirrels ten or twelve years; bats seventeen years; Sheep and goats twelve or fourteen years; dogs, cats and hogs from twelve to 1 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 61 twenty years; lions, tigers, and bears twenty-five years; horses, asses and zebras from fifteen to thirty years; cows twenty-five years; elephants forty years; whales probably live more than a hundred years, and may be the longest lived as well as the largest animal. Man lives a hundred years in rare instances ; all cases reputed to be much more than this are be- lieved to be errors of reckoning. The duration of life among plants is equally var- ied. Some of the fungi live but a few days; many plants live one year; others, as many herbs, live two years ; shrubs live from four to ten years ; trees with soft wood, as poplars and willows, live for fifty years. The age of large tree may be definitely known by counting their annual rings of growth. In this we find that they live to various ages, from the elm, which lives three hundred years, to the giant trees of California, the largest thing that has life, more than a hundred feet in circumference and more than three thousand years. A baobab tree in Cape Verde Island is estimated to be five thousand years old. The statement that all living things must die is certainly true of all multicellular forms, but it is not necessarily true of one cell forms, as bacteria, protozoa, etc. Weismann's doctrine that the one cell form, in which a parent cell divides to become two daughter cells, may live on indefinitely is now generally accepted. Though these protozoa die in countless millions some of them live on through countless generations. The germ cells in the sex or- gans make an instance of cells now living which have come into being by division of parent cells that go back and back for progenitors till the time when life was formed on the earth, probably more than a hundred million years ago. Says Thompson in his "Wonder of Life" : ''We can not speak of death when one creature 62 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS directly turns into two or many, and when there is nothing left to bury. It is not improbable that some very simple multicellular animals, such as the fresh water Hydra, may also go on living indefinitely if the natural conditions are altogether propitious. The structure and the multiplication of the Hydra are alike so simple that there seems no good reason why it should die a natural death. Most animals die before their time, devoured by their fellows, killed by some environmental vicissitude, or starved by a seasonal disappearance of their food. In a state of nature most animals die a violent death before they have nearly reached the end of their tether." The fact that forms of life came into being by a process of evolution seems to be made manifest when we have made a survey of all living forms of both animals and plants, and find that they may be ar- ranged in the order of complexity — from simple to ever more complex, sometimes by small gradations. When we further find, as we do, that the simplest forms are always found in the oldest geologic strata, that the most complex forms are found only in the most recent strata, and that there is a gradation of complexity in fossil forms from the oldest to the most recently laid strata, each stratum having types only a little less complex than those just above it and very similar to them, the evidence of the creation of ani- mals and plants by a process of evolution seems complete. It is not true, however, that every form of life has changed to other and higher forms as the ages ad- vanced, for some have remained the same, and there are many instances of retrogression of type. Cer- tain protozoa with perforated shells (foraminifera) are exactly the same now as they were in strata laid perhaps a hundred million years ago during the Silu- rian epoch. In the sands of seashores in most parts THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 63 of the world living at the line of low tide are the lingulae, little animals in a shell about an inch long from one end of which is a gristly stalk. Fossils of this same form are found in the Paleozoic Age. The barnacle is an instance of change to a lower form, for its ancestor was a free swimming animal with eyes and other sense organs, while it is now fixed and torpid, and blind in its adult stage. ''Science has taught us something of the wonder- ful stability of nature, something of the immensity of past time and future ages, something of the eter- nity of natural processes. Comipared with this infin- ite stability and eternity of nature, what are our little systems and customs? Our years and centuries fall into this abyss of time like grains of sand. Our individual lives are like drops of water in the great ocean of life. What intellectual development, what social institutions, what control of natural processes may come in the long ages of futurity, it has not entered into the heart of man to conceive. And yet, so far as we may judge from the small portion of the recbrd of the past which we can read, there has been no necessary progress. There has been eternal pro- cess moving on, but not eternal progress. Stagna- tion, degeneration, elimination, as well as progres- sion, have occurred all along the path of evolution. And yet on the whole evolution has been progressive, and there is no reason to suppose that the elimina- tion of the unfit and the preservation of the fit will cease to be the law of future evolution, as it has been of the past." (Edwin Grant Conklin, op. cita.) The creation of birds from the four-legged five- toed cold-blooded reptiles of the Mesozoic Age, the scales becoming feathers and the fore legs develop- ing into wings, is one of the greatest achievements of evolution, yet it is a fact to which all biologists agree. This achievement, equal in its wonderful 64 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS changes to that by which some invertebrates devel- oped into fishes, or to that by which some cold- blooded reptiles developed into mammals, has event- uated in giving to us the ten thousand species of living birds and the vast number of those extinct. Just how it was achieved we do not know, but we have in the archaeopteryx an animal just midway between bird and reptile. We have also in the fos- sil tetrapteryx a missing link between bird and rep- tile. Its scales turned after ages into feathers. Says Dr. W. H. Ballou: V'The hind limbs of birds are so similar in struc- ture to those of certain dinosaurs that the inference must be made that birds came up from two-legged, long-tailed running reptiles which, during their progress, coasted along in the air by flapping their free front limbs. These free front limbs or arms would, of course, be more effective if their breadth could in some way increase to give a greater bearing surface — in just the same way that, all things being equal, an aeroplane can go through the air better with bigger planes than smaller ones. An increase in the size of the scales along the arm margin would be a ready means to this end. The fossils show such an increase actually took place. "Similar scales might develop along the margins of the tail — and did. These scales would in time extend, lighten and ultimately evolve into feathers which would not only increase the function of flight but, acting as clothing, retain and aid in the increase of temperature." THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 65 CHAPTER IV. The Factors of Evolution The most wonderful thing about life is its power to create an infinite variety of new forms. Geology enables us to know that for long ages after the earth had its oceans there were layers of sediment which hold no fossils or relics of living forms, and that above these lifeless layers are strata that hold living forms, the simplest forms being in the lowest strata. This does not mean that life brought into the world at that time new matter or new laws, but there was a new derivative from the old, a recombination of forces preexisting in the energy which composed the matter of the earth. Matter is now known to be but reservoirs of units of energy. However, we do not know the nature of this energy, or the actions, re- actions, and interrelations of its units. These seem to be utterly hidden from us, utterly beyond the reach of our observation. We do know ,however, that there has been an evo- lution of living forms from simple to complex until now we have almost an infinite variety. We know that three sets of energies include all the forces which cause this evolution, to wit: those that make up the body of the plant or animal, those that make its environment, and those that make up the heredi- ty substance, the chromatin of the egg, which com- pels the egg to become an adult. The actions, re- actions and interrelations of these three sets of ener- gies lead to the forming of new varieties or species. If we could but know the nature of this universal energy which is embodied in forms of matter we might predict the future forms of life or claim to 66 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS know the true cause of the evolution of the present from the past, but alas! we can only know what can be reached by our senses and these are too limited in their powers to bring us evidence as to the nature of the Creative Energy, which moves in the electrons that compose the atoms that compose the cell. Though this be true, great discoveries have been made of nature's method in creating new forms of life and it is the purpose of this chapter to state them. There are various forms of life to be seen on the earth, as has been said, but all the forms are com- posed of cells and all cells are made up of the same chemical elements. On this account all life is the same in essence, and whether it be of flower or bird it has basic qualities that are the same, as, for in- stance, irritability, nutrition, reproduction, growth. We should say then that the life which animates the forms of all the many thousands of species of both plants and animals is the same. There are three thousand species of mammals and ten thousand species of birds now living. Of insects there are three hundred thousand species now living, some of which, as ants and bees and spiders, have powers of mind that make them among the wonders of the world. The rocks of the earth's crust hold as fossils, which we can now examine, the remains of many thousands of forms of life long extinct. Many of these fossil forms are similar to those now living, and all of them belong to one of the families into which all living things are classed by reason of resem- blances in structure. All forms of life have shapes and parts and powers that adapt them to their particular place and to all things about them. Many of them are made to fit the needs and the nature of other forms of life as a hand fits a glove. The mouth part of bees and THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 67 butterflies and other insects are formed to fit the shape and size of the flowers, and vice versa. Dar- win, while aboard a ship near the coast of Madagas- car, drew a life size picture of a flower never seen by him but afterward found on the land near. He had measured the length of body, legs, and pro- boscis of a moth caught on the ship and from this data he drew a design of the flower just suited by its shape and size to give nectar to it. Highly colored flowers usually depend entirely on insects to be pol- linated, the color of the flower being adapted to at- tract the insects. The humming birds are clearly adapted to visit flowers. Their favorites are scarlet flowers with a long tube in which they find nectar, like the canna and trumpet vine. The flowers that are without colors, as the flowers of oaks, pines, etc., are usually pollinated by the wind; but there are so many trees and other plants that do depend on in- sects whose shapes are correlated to their flowers that there seems to be no doubt that insects and flowering plants, the angiosperms, have made the shapes of each other. The shapes of insects and flowering plants are but adaptations to a certain mode of life. It may also be shown that the instincts and the other powers of the insect that are higher than those possessed by the plant are but adapta- tions to its mode of life. Not only is this true of the bee and other insects which visit flowers, but the shapes and sizes and all other qualities, including all the powers of the mind, of fish and bird and beast are adaptations to their mode of life, and have been perfected to their present state through changes for millions of years. The form and qualities of every variety of life seem to have been created by its needs as a fitting to the environment. Those plants and animals whose form and powers failed to meet their needs perished from the earth. 68 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS As a matter of fact we know that a great many forms have ceased to exist, have become extinct, and that others are nearing extinction. For instance, the great auk, the dodo, and the moa, all of them im- mense birds recently living, are now gone. They are utterly extinct, and so recently has this occurred that their egg shells (now valued at thousands of dollars each) are to be found in many of the mu- Dodo [Didiis iiieptus) From a painting m the Belvedere. Vienna. Skeleton of Dinornts. Museuiff of Natural History. New York. FOUR ANIMALS RECENTLY KX'J INCT The Quagga 1870, the Great Auk 1844, the Dodo 1681, the Moa in 1500. These pictures, being taken from different books, do not give a cor- rect view of the relative sizes of the animals. seums of the world. The great auk species vanished in 1844. It lived both in Europe and America, in- habiting Labrador in large numbers. It was about two and a half feet long, but as its wings were only THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 69 six inches long it could not fly away from destruction at the hands of man. The dodo became extinct about two hundred years ago, vanishing in 1681. It lived on Mauritius Island, east of Madagascar. It was as large as a swan, but as its wings were too small for flight, it also soon succumbed after the island was occupied by man. We have some pictures made of it from life, and large numbers of its skeletons have been preserved. The moa lived in New Zealand, and became extinct about the year 1500. It was a huge, flightless bird, whose size was far greater than that of the ostrich. The bones of some of them are preserved, and show them to have been fourteen feet high with thigh bones stouter than those of the horse. The quagga, an animal intermediate between the horse and the zebra, until recently wandered in large herds over the plains of South Africa, as did our almost extinct buffalo over the plains of North America; but as the flesh and hide of the quagga were of great value to man he (the Boers) killed it with ruthless waste. The last one died in 1870. The hairy mammoth, the ancestor of the elephant, be- came extinct so recently that several specimens have been found in the ice fields of Siberia with the flesh preserved. These are a few specimens of animals recently extinct. The rocks bear fossils of hundreds of thousands of forms of animals that disappeared from the earth millions of years ago because their forms and powers of body and mind failed to fit them to their surroundings in a way that could pro- vide for them food and the rearing of offspring. Several races of men have become extinct within historic times. When the island of Tasmania was discovered by the white man, it was occupied by a race somewhat similar to the aborigines of Australia not far away. The English settlement there in 1804 brought such unfavorable conditions to their en- 70 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS vironment that the natives, unfitted for the struggle for existence when in competition with the Englsh, and unable to withstand diseases like measles, to which the white man had become inured, rapidly diminished in numbers, and in 1865 the last one died. There are photographs extant of this last Tasman- ian, an old woman named Tiganina, with whose sad life ended that of a race. The Lenguas, a tribe of Photograph of a three-toed prehistoric horse, the Hypohippus. From Encyclopedia Britannlca, 11th Edition- South American Indians, that lived west of Para- guay river, formerly very numerous and formidable, became extinct in 1828 when the miserable remnant THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 71 of less than three hundred of theni merged in other tribes. They had been nearly exterminated by the white settlers. The fossils of the Paleozoic Age show that the entire surface of the land was then covered with the same kind of plants, a fact probably due to the earth's being enveloped by dense clouds which acted as a blanket to keep it warm from pole to pole for a long period of time. These plants were mainly ferns, club mosses, and horsetails. It was the rank growth of these that made the coal beds of the world. When climatic zones appeared as the blanket of clouds dis- appeared, new forms of plants came into being. The higher plants did not come into existence till the latter part of the Mesozoic Age. Though once the plants in both hemispheres were the same, a good many plants are now found in the northern hemi- sphere that are not found in the southern, and vice versa. Pines, firs, willows, oaks, birches and maples are not found in the southern hemisphere. When the floras of the Indo-Malay peninsula are compared with the tropical part of South America only a few varieties will be found native to both countries. Even when the native varieties or species of widely separated parts of the earth are found to be the same, they will have differences that easily distin- guish them, from each other. The varieties of the oaks, elms, walnuts, larches, asters, golden rods, gentians, and violets native to Europe are easily dis- tinguished from those found in North America. Campbell in his Evolution of Plants, tells us that "Europe has no magnolias, tulip trees, gums, sassa- fras, hickories, trilliums, milkweeds, mandrakes, persimmons, locusts, and many more familiar Am- erican plants; (some of these are found in Europe as fossils showing that they once existed there) while on the other hand America possesses no daffo- 72 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS dils, tulips, snowdrops, fox gloves, heaths, brooms, and many other beautiful flowers which adorn the woods and meadows of the Old World. The daisies, dandelions and buttercups of our Eastern states are m as r= an O S S 0) I 3^ Jf c s OS European immigrants, and the thistles and burdocks are aliens. The plants native to the tropics are usually members of families that have no represent- atives in the temperate zones." When we recall the fact that the fossils show that the same plants once THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 73 grew all over the earth, from pole to pole, whers there were the same climatic conditions, and reflect that now each different climatic condition has its own variety of plants, we must see the reasonable- ness of the conclusion that the shapes and other qualities of the plants, and also of the animals, are owing to changes that fitted them to their modes of life under changed conditions of climate and the other features of the environment about them. A failure in fitness to climate or other condition would cause the extinction of the plant or animal. The sassafras, magnolia, and tulip trees which are now found only in southeastern United States and south- eastern Asia, are found as fossils in Pliocene strata of Portugal, France, Italy, and the Altai Mountains. Until 1859, when Darwin published his discovery that new species of plants and animals are created by the natural selection of those forms best adapted to the conditions in a given area, it was generally be- lieved that each form of life was a special creation miraculously made by the Creator, and that of these specially created forms the forms now existing are the exact replicas and in lineal descent from them. In the half century since Darwin published the evi- dence of evolution in his work, 'The Origin of Spe- cies by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preserva- tion of the Favored Races in the Struggle for Life,'' all biologists without exception have come to accept his conclusion. Many great men are devoting their lives to the study of the ways of nature and much light has been thrown on the problems of biology since Darwin's discovery. Much that Darwin be- lieved to be true has been modified; but his con- tention that the origin of species is due to variations that are naturally selected, that survive because they are better fitted to the environment, is no ^longer dis- puted by any biologist. The cause of the variations 74 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS that first appear is still not understood, and there is much contention as to nature's method in throwing the new varieties that appear within a species, but there is now no dispute as to the fact that the least adapted forms become extinct by a purely natural process. This leads to differences so great in those surviving that the plant or animal comes to be of a different species from the form that first produced the variations. This is now taken as a fact proved beyond dispute. ''Evolution," says H. F. Osborn, "is a law of living nature as firmly and incontrovertibly established as the law of gravitation in respect to the celestial spheres." S. W. Williston says 'That all living things have arisen on this earth by a process of evolution is a demonstrated fact. But the causes of organic evolution are still an unsolved problem; and he will be a greater man than Darwin who finally demon- strates them." There are. five well known facts which work to- gether as factors in the process of making new spe- cies. These are as follows : 1. No two children of the same parents are ever exactly alike. Whether the parents be plants or animals, their offspring will differ in some respects from the parents and from each other in form, color, tendency, texture, temperament, or other of the many characteristics that make up an individual. From this it would result that some individuals would be better adapted to secul-e food, escape enemies, and care for offspring than others. For in- stance, those individual plants born with a smaller, smoother leaf and longer root would be better adapted to secure and hold moisture, and be more likely to live through a drought or in a desert than their brothers not so gifted. 2. Most of the offspring of a plant or animal are THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 75 endowed with features like their parents in most particulars. This inheritance by a child of the fea- tures of the parent is now believed to be mechanized by a group of bodies, chemical compounds, of infini- tesimally small size in the nucleus of the egg or seed. For each unit character in the adult plant or animal there is a specific body called a determiner in the nucleus of the egg or seed that compels the growth along lines that will bring the characteristic into be- ing. These specific bodies are in the egg or seed which are developed within the parent, but because they can never be mingled in exactly the same way when the sperm of the male unites with the ovum of the female each egg or seed is a little different from other eggs or seeds made by the same parents. This fact leads to the appearance of differences in the children. How a new specific body, made of one or more molecules, comes into being in the egg or seed that will cause an entirely new feature to ap- pear in the adult, or how a specific body in the egg of the parent may fail to be made in the egg or seed of the child, and so a quality once found in the adults of a strain entirely drop out, is as yet unknown. The fact remains, however, beyond dispute that the mechanism in the nucleus of the egg or seed secures the reappearance in the offspring of plants or ani- mals of most but not quite all of the features of the parents; and it is this mechanism that brings into being in the child a feature not in the parent. How the determiners in the egg nucleus are made and mingled is still unknown, as stated above. 3. There are usually born more plants or animals of the species living in a given area than can obtain food or place there. If all the plants and animals born matured into adults the earth's surface would be entirely covered within a few months. One oyster lays millions of eggs, each of which may produce an 76 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS oyster that will also lay millions of eggs. A female salmon lays ' about nine hundred eggs for every pound of her weight, and she may weigh fifty pounds. A plant bearing ten seeds a year would have a billion descendants in ten years. The slowest breeder on the earth is the elephant, which gives birth to one young every ten years, but if it lives to a hundred years as some claim it does, one pair will become ten elephants in a century, and if none die before the time of natural death for them, at the end of eight centuries the pair would have nineteen million descendants living. Thus more individuals of each species are born than can survive. 4. As there are food and place for only a com- paratively few of each species born in an area there must be a struggle for life going on at that place to determine which individuals shall live. There is a struggle for life by each individual against others of the same species, and also against the hard con- ditions of the environment. 5. Those best adapted to obtain food, escape or destroy enemies, find mates, and other necessities for the continuance of life, will be the ones that will survive. Those with the greatest natural powers, as sight, hearing, swiftness of locomotion, reasoning power, will survive in larger numbers and bear chil- dren. If this more favorable variation be due to energies in the egg from which the individual devel- oped it will also appear in his children. This will lead to the pers stence of the best endowed of a species, and the disappearance of the less endowed in competition with his variety. The addition of small variations in one direction for many gener- ations becomes difference so great that the individual must after a time be classed as a different species from his ancestor in which the variations first ap- peared. Large variations sometimes appear sudden- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 77 ly, as "leaps" or ''sports." If favorable they will persist as varieties. These five facts acting together are held to be sufficient to create new species. Granting the fact of variations — and this we must do, however we may differ as to their cause — granting the arrival of vari- ations, we can now plainly see that their preserva- tion is sufficient to produce in time entirely different species, and we can now see that this is accom- plished by a natural selection of those forms adapted to make the most and the best out of the environ- ment. We see that progress toward better forms must result from the survival of the fittest in each generation. We should clearly note that the survival of the fittest, or natural selection, does not account for the arrival of a new quality or power in a plant or ani- mal. There must be a change in the seed or egg be- fore a new power or quality arrives that will persist in descendants. Says Conklin (op. cita) : ''The elimination of certain races by natural selection may be an important factor in evolution, though it has nothing to do with the formation of new characters or new races but serves merely as a sieve, as DeVries has expressed it, to sort the individuals which are supplied to it. Selection has no power to make or change characters, but it may preserve certain lines and eliminate others, and thus fix the type of a species. Finally the elimination of the unfit by natural selection is still the only natural explanation of fitness, or adaptations, in organisms." No one has yet offered the solution of the problem as to how or why the egg or seed changes to furnish the new variations which are rejected or selected by nature. It has been suggested that the infinitesimal chemical bodies which make the determiners in the egg can never be exactly like that in the parent's egg from 78 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS which it is derived owing to the fact that conditions can never be exactly the same and therefore differ- ent chemical unions take place. One thing is now clear, that the new variation can not arrive in the form of the plant or animal except as a development from a new ''inheritance unit" or an alteration of an inheritance unit formed in the seed or egg and existing in those seeds and eggs that are in lineal descent from it. There is no form of the body or power of the mind that does not come into being as the result of determiners in the seed or egg- cell. Says Conklin: "The entire organism, consist- ing of structures and functions, body and mind, de- velops out of the germ, and the organization of the germ determines all the possibilities of development of the mind no less than the body." **0f course the characters of the adult individuals do not exist as such in the germ cells, but there is no escape from the conclusion that in case of inherent differences between mature organisms there must have been differences in the constitution of the germ- cells from which they developed. For every inher- ited character there was a germinal cause in the fer- tilized egg. This germinal cause, whatever it may be, is spoken of as a determiner of a character. Each character is caused by some particular combination of inheritance units." These exist in the nucleus of the egg or seed. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 79 CHAPTER V. The Laws of Inheritance The five facts — ^the appearance of variations from the parents in some particulars, the resemblance to the parents in most particulars, the birth of more plants and animals than can live, the struggle for lood and other necessities of life resulting in the survival of the fittest — make the chain of causes pointed out by Darwin for the progress of all living things to forms and powers that give them ever bet- ter adaptation to their environment. Since Darwin's discovery of the last link in the chain, survival of the fittest or natural selection, as the means by which each step of this progress is taken, many important discoveries have been made which modify and sim- plify the view presented by him, the most important being those made by Weissman, by DeVries and by Mendel. Weissman proved that the germ-plasm is continuous and that characteristics acquired by the individual are not inherited. DeVries proved that hereditary variations came as the effect of a change in the egg and were usually by leaps or sports in- stead of by infinitesimally small changes as Darwin thought. Mendel discovered the law of inheritance of dominant and recessive characters. Weissman discovered that the germ plasm is con- tinuous from generation to generation, and he proved that instead of the hen making the egg the egg makes the hen and the eggs laid by her by a process of cell division that sets the germ-cells apart and causes the body to be a mere support and ve- hicle for the germ cells. Until this proof was pub- lished it was believed that whatever new traits an 80 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS individual acquired after his birth would be found in his posterity. It was believed, for instance, that if a man had long training in music his children would have inore ability to succeed in music than if he, the parent, had not acquired expertness in music. But after Weismann proved that the body cells, nerves, muscles, etc., had no relation to the germ cell, which is set apart soon after the fertilized cell begins to multiply by division of one cell into two, and that the germ cell is the determiner of the quali- ties of posterity, the difficulty, if not the impossi- bility, of the body cells affecting the germ cells be- came apparent. The reader will find in the following extract from Conklin's Heredity and Environment a brief but clear statement of the views now held as to the mechanism of inheritance of ancestral traits: "There is a continuity of germinal cells (the egg or seed is made by a union of these cells found in the sex organs) from one generation to the next. In some animals the germ cells are set apart at a very early stage of development, sometimes in the early cleav- age stages of the egg. In practically every case the geims cells arise from the germinal or embryonic (body) tissues. The germ in the undeveloped organ- ism forms the bond between successive generations; the person is the developed organism which arises from the germ under the influence of environmental conditions. The person develops and dies in each generation ; the germ-plasm is the continuous stream of living substance which connects all generations. The person nourishes and protects the germ, and in this sense the person is merely the carrier of the germ-plasm, the mortal trustee of an immortal sub- stance." (Because this germ-plasm lives its life without connection with the body that enfolds it, and nourishes it, the qualities acquired by the ex- periences of the body are not inheritable) . ''Heredi- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 81 ty may be defined as the appearance in offspring of characters whose differential causes are found in the germ cells. Heritage is the sum of all those qualities which are determined or caused by this germinal organization." "All students of heredity assume the existence of inheritance units in the germ cells, called determin- ers. They are thought of as elements or units of the germ cells which condition the characters of the de- veloped organism, and which are in a measure inde- pendent of one another. The germ cells are exceed- ingly complex. They contain many visible units (microscopic) such as chromosomes, and with every great improvement in the microscope other struc- tures are made visible which were invisible before." All the qualities of the chicken, duck, fish, frog or man are developed by reason of the existence of certain minute bodies in the nucleus of the fertilized egg. A tiny germ cell may contain in its nucleus enough inheritance units as material particulars to provide for the almost infinite variety of qualities found in the animal and plant world. The particles that are inheritance units are made of molecules, the largest of which are probably ten millionths of a millimeter in diameter. It would require twenty- five of these laid side by side to equal the diameter of the smallest particle seeable by our highest power microscopes. Not only so, but a molecule of albu- men which has forty carbon atoms may be so ar- ranged as to become a billion stereoisomers, that is, particles that have all the same atoms, but each with different qualities, due to a different arrangement of the same atoms in a molecule. When we note that there are many kinds of albumen and other pro- teins in the egg or cell, some with more than seven hundred carbon atoms, we must admit that even the tiniest germ cell known to us could contain 82 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS enough inheritance units in its nucleus to cause the development of the most complex individual. It is because every fertilized egg cell differs in some re- spects from every other one that no two adult indi- viduals are ever exactly alike, not even though they be full brothers; and it is because the inheritance units in every fertilized egg cell are arranged similarly to the egg cell from which it came by a mere division that the egg cell of a chicken will produce a chicken, of a duck a duck. In this way we get both variations from parents and resemblances to them as the heritage of every individual. The discovery that has proved of the most practi- cal value to both the student and the breeder of plants and animals was made by an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, who discovered in 1866 the fact that if a cross be made of two individual plants which had some qualities as to color, size, etc., that were in striking contrast, the progeny would not be a blend, a mid-way between the parents, but would be always exactly like one of the parents as to that characteristic. He found that the first generation of descendants would all be like one of the parents, that is they would all take from the same one of the parents, and that if the children of this first gener- ation were inbred they would produce children three-fourths of whom would be facsimiles of one grandparent as to a certain characteristic, and that the other one-fourth would have the characteristic of the other grandparent, the latter characteristic being that which failed to appear in the first gener- ation. See illustration of grandchildren of a white and a black guinea pig. In this way one character- istic would be properly called ''dominant" and the other ''recessive." For instance, if sweet peas of two varieties are crossed, one having red petals and the other white petals, the first generation of off- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 83 PAREMTS 4^^ From Covkliv's Hnrdity and Enviromnent. spring will all be red petaled, red thus showing it- self a dominant ''unit-character." If this first gen- eration be interbred there results an offspring 75 per cent, of which will be red petaled and 25 per cent, white petaled. The white petal offspring, the ''recessive," when interbred with white petaled sisters will produce only white petaled sweet peas, but when the red petaled are interbred in a like way 25 per cent, of them will produce only red petaled sweet peas, but the remaining 50 per cent, being interbred will produce hybrids of red and white petals, but in the proportion of three red to one white. Thus the red, the "dominant," will have only one out of three pure — that is, incapable of produc- ing anything but red petaled offspring — but the white, the "recessive," are always pure — that is, incapable on interbreeding with white of producing anything but white petaled offspring. 84 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Similarly when grey and white mice are mated, grey proves to be the ''dominant" and white the ''recessive" in exactly the same proportion of three to one. If a black guinea pig be crossed with a brown one, the black and the brown are found to be Mendelian characteristics, the black "dominant." When an ordinary mouse is mated with the waltz- ing mouse of Japan, the descendants of the first generation are all ordinary mice; but when these; latter are interbred their offspring are found to have one out of four waltzing mice, exact replicas '-•ffBTJ^BIHmjr^^^i (|i1^^^Ki!BW^p|[|ifc^'~ ^^* :>* From ,JoicetV>< Tlir .Ve.rf Geiunifioii. of the Japan mouse as to its habit of waltzing. Thus the waltzing habit is a Mendelian character. Mendel used the common garden pea for his ex- periments, crossing the giant variety, six to seven feet high, with the dwarf variety, three-fourths to one and a half feet high. The first generation of the hybrids were all tall, six to seven feet high. Therefore, as stated above, he called tallness the "dominant" character, and dwarfness the "recess- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 85 ive." The tall hybrids, on being interbred, pro- duced both tails and dwarfs, but invariably in the proportion of three to one, three tails (''dominants") to one dwarf (''recessive"). When the dwarfs of this latter, the second, generation were interbred, they produced all dwarfs and continued in all suc- cessive generations to produce all dwarfs. These he called "pure" recessive. When the tails of the second generation were interbred, they produced both tails and dwarfs in the same proportion as be- fore, three "dominants" (tall) to one "recessive" (dwarf). Of this generation of "dominants," one- third would be "pure," — that is, on being interbred they would produce only tall variety ("dominants") in all succeeding generations. The other two-thirds would be "impure" — that is, produce both tails and dwarfs in the proportion of three to one as before. Thus he could at will plant seed that would produce only tails or only dwarfs or both tails and dwarfs. The results he found to be invariable, and recent experiments, all made since his writiing were brought to public attention in 1900, prove that in both the animal and the plant world when the two parents have characteristics so contrasted that they will not blend, the proportion of the offspring which will have the one or the other characteristics may be predicted. Acting on this fact, breeders of stock have been able to produce at will "pure" strains of hornless cattle, hens without the brooding instinct, rabbits with long Angora hair. etc. Breeders of plants have been able to produce at will "pure" strains of wheat with immunity to rust or absence of beard on the ears, barley with six-rowed ears or with two-rowed ears, peas with white seed, etc. From Conklin's Heredity and Environment we get the following paragraphs, which make clear the essentials of Mendelism: 86 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS ''In the case of the peas studied by Mendel the hybrids of the F I generation show only the domin- ant character, the contrasted character being pres- ent but not expressed. However, in certain cases it has been found that the hybrids differ from either parent and in successive generations split up into both parental types and into the hybrid type; thus Correns found that when a white-flowered variety of Mirabilis, the four-o'clock, was crossed with a red-flowered variety all of the hybrids in the F I generation had pink flowers, and from those in the F 2 generation there came the white-flowered, pink- flowered and red-flowered forms." ''In the F 2 generation and in all subsequent ones the pure dominants and the pure recessives always breed true when self-fertilized, whereas the mixed dominant-recessives continue to split up in each successive generation into pure dominants, mixed dominant-recessives and pure recessives in the pro- portion 1:2:1. The result of this is that the relative number of the dominants and recessives increases in successive generations, whereas the relative num- ber of mixed dominant-recessives decreases, and in a few generations a hybrid race will revert in large part to its parental types if contiued hybridization is prevented. On the other hand there is no tend- ency for the relative number of dominants to in- crease and of recessives to decrease in successive generations; an equal number of pure dominants and pure recessives is produced in each generation." "With remarkable insight Mendel recognized that the real explanantion of the splitting of pure recessives and pure dominants from hybrid parents must be found in the composition of the male and female sex cells. Since such extracted dominants and recessives breed true, just as pure species do, it must be that their germ cells are pure. In the THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 87 cross between pure races of white-flowered and red- flowered Mirabilis the germ cells which unite in fertilization must be pure with respect to white and red, though the individual which develops from this cross is a pink hybrid. But the fact that one- quarter of the progeny of this hybrid are pure white, and another pure red, and that these thereafter breed true, proves that hybrids produce germ cells which are pure with respect to red and white. Furthermore the fact that one-half the progeny of this hybrid are themselves hybrid may be explained D li Parent Generation • X Ilctcro:: fiQotr Diagram showing results of Mendelian splitting where the parents are pure dominants and pure recessives (homozygotes). All pure dominants are represented by black circles, all pure recessives by white ones, while mixed domi- nant-recessives (heterozygotes) are represented by circles half white and half black. Successive generations are marked F,, F„ F3, etc. - From Conklin's Heredity and Environment. by assuming that they were produced by the union of germ cells carrying pure white and pure red, as in the parental generation." "Mendel therefore concluded that each individual germ cell is always pure with respect to any pair of contrasting characters even though that germ cell has come from hybrids in which the contrasting char- acters are mixed. A single germ cell can carry the factors, or causes, for red flowers or white flowers, for green seeds or yellow seed, for tall stem or short stem, etc., but not for both pairs of these contrast- 88 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS ing characters. The hybrids formed by crossing white and red four-o^clocks carry the factors for both white and red, but the individual germ cells formed by such a hybrid carry the factors for white or red, but not for both; these factors segregate or separate in the formation of the germ cells so that one-half of all the germ cells formed carry the factor for white and the other half that for red." This is the most important part of Mendel's law — the central doctrine from which all other conclusions of his radiate. It explains not only the segregation of dominant and recessive characters from a hybrid in which both are present, but also the relative num- bers of pure dominants, pure recessives, and mixed dominant-recessives in each generation. For if all germ cells are pure with respect to any particular character the hybrid offspring of any two parents with contrasting characters will produce in equal numbers two classes of germ cells, one bearing the dominant and the other recessive factor, and the chance combination of these two classes of male and female gametes will yield on the average one union of dominant with dominant, two unions of dominant with recessive, and one union of recessive with re- cessive, thus producing the typical Mendelian ratio, IDD: 2D (R):IRR. In the United States we have at Cold Spring Har- bor, Long Island, New York, the Eugenics Record Office, which collaborates with the biology sections of the Carnegie Institution in the study of the laws of heredity as applied to man, with the hope of find- ing ways to improve the human stock, to improve the inborn qualities of the race by a better system of breeding than that now in vogue. Mr. C. B. Daven- port, in his work, 1911, ''Heredity in Relation to Eugenics," sets forth the conclusions reached by these studies. From this work we find the inherit- THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 89 ance of family traits, the inborn qualities, include eye color, hair color, hair form, skin color, stature, total body weight, musical ability, abilities in artistic and literary composition, mechanical skill, calculat- ing ability, memory, temperature, bodily energy and strength, general mental ability, epilepsy, insan- ity, pauperism, tendency to narcotism, criminality, various diseases of the nerves, rheumatism, defects of speech, defects of eye, ear and skin, liability to cancer and tumors, certain diseases of the muscular system and blood, and thyroid glands and blood ves- sels, and digestive system and reproductive organs, abnormalities of the skeleton, and the tendency to produce tv^ins. From the pages of that book we glean the following statements as to the inheritance of each of these traits : The inheritancje law as to eyes may be stated as follows : If both parents have blue eyes all their children will have blue eyes. If both parents have brown eyes, three-fourths of the children will have brown eyes, one-fou(rth will have blue eyes. If, however, either one of the parents has two brown eyed parents his (or her) eyes will be duplex brown, that is, the iris will have brown both behind and in front of it. In this latter case the brown eyed parent will have only brown eyed children, even though the consort be blue eyed. If one parent is blue eyed and the other brown eyed, but not duplex brown as explained, one half of the children will be brown eyed and one half will be blue eyed. It is interesting to learn that ''while in most races of the globe brown pigment is heavily secreted in the iris, in Northwestern Europe blue, gray, or yel- low-blue eyes are found. It seems probable that once upon a time, or perhaps at many times, an individual was born without brown pigment in the iris. The offspring of such prospered and spread throughout 90 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Nortwestern Europe and migrated thence to Ameri- ca and Australia. This defect, lack of iris pigment, has had a wonderful history. By noting its distri- bution the migration of peoples can be traced. Blue eyes are very common among he Irish and their de- scendants. In the Spey Valley of Scotland the dens- ity of pure blue eyes is high, owing prpbably to the Norse invasion at that point. So in our country the blue eyes are where the Scandinavians and North Germans have settled. Eye color shows no tendency to blend in heredity. Brown-eyed children can be secured from blue-eyed stock by mating with pure brown-eyed stock. If both parents are pure blue- eyed, all the children will have pure blue eyes." As to hair color, we find the laws of inheritance not so easily applied because of the fact that "half the persons who will eventually have black hair still have light to medium brown at sixteen years of age." The general law, however, obtains that was stated as to eyes. A young person with red hair has a strong antipathy to a red-haired person of the op- posite sex. **If one parent only forms red-hair germ cells exclusively, while the other forms exclusively germ cells containing the determiner for black pig- ment, the offspring will show no red; still less will red-haired offspring appear if neither parent forms red-haired germ cells. Red-haired offspring may come from the brown, or better from glossy black- haired parents, provided both form red-haired germ-cells. In that case, both dark-haired parents probably have ancestors with red hair." As to hair form — whether straight, wavy, curly or woolly, the law of inheritance of traits holds. If both parents have straight hair, then all of the chil- dren will have straight hair. If both parents have wavy hair, about three-fourths of the children will have curled hair and the others straight hair; but THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 91 two curly-haired parents, both of curly haired stock on both sides, will probably have all curly or wavy haired children. "The skin color is due to pigment granules lying in the deep stratum of the skin. When both parents are blonds, most, if not all, of their offspring are blonds. If one person is blond and the other darker, about half the children will, on the average, be blond and half pigmented, but rarely darker than the darker parent. If both parents be dark, the per- centage of brunettes ranges from about 25 to zero. In general, whatever the mating, the children will not be darker than their darker parent." "When one parent is white and the other as dark as a full blooded negro, the offspring are of an in- termediate shade (mulatto). If two such mulattos marry, their offspring vary in color from mulatto to Caucasian skins. Two very light colored parents will have only light children, some of whom "pass for whites" away from home." As to stature, "the first general law is that in case the four grandparents are very unlike, the adult children will vary greatly in stature, whereas when the grandparental statures are closely alike, those of the children will be also. The second law is that when both parents are tall, all the children will tend to be tall ; but on the contrary, if both parents are short some of the children will be short and some tall. If all the grandparents are short, then there tend to be twice as many short children as tall." As to body weight, the same general laws obtain. Obesity may be hereditary in a family, being due to an inborn defect. Length of life is not a unit character, being due to such "factors as absence of defects of bodily structures, resistance to the commoner virulent germs of disease, and environmental conditions that 92 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS maintain at its highest point internal resistance." The first two factors are inheritable. ''The innateness of musical ability cannot be ques- tioned. The Bach family comprised twenty eminent musicians, and two score others less eminent." When both parents are exceptionally good in music, all the children are medium to exceptionally good. When both parents are poor in musical ability and come of ancestry that lacks on one or both sides such ability, the children will be non-musical. When one parent has high musical ability and the other has little, the children will vary much in this re- spect." Ability in artistic composition, in literary compos- ition, in mechanical skill, and in special mathematic- al ability follows the same rules of inheritance as does ability in music. So does exceptional memory. Artistic, literary and musical skill are unit characters that may occur in combinations. ''The higher grades of all these characters act in inheritance as though they were due to the absence of something that is present in persons of poorer ability. The person of high ability seems to have got rid of something possessed by the person of lower ability that pre- vents the latter from fully exercising his facilities — he has sloughed off one or more inhibitors. Talents are frequently enough with insanity as apparently to justify the poet's conclusion: "Great wits are sure to madness near allied." As to temperaments, we find that "the offspring of the phlegmatic parent tend to be phlegmatic, and the nervous parents of pure nervous origin have nervous children. One phlegmatic parent mated to a nervous one will produce chiefly nervous children, and many intermediate." The phlegmatics are slow, rarely depressed; the nervous are quick, often elated or alternately elated and depressed. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 93 Bodily energy and bodily strength are inherit- ances. Epilepsy and feeble mindedness follow the same laws of inheritance. "Two epileptic parents prob- ably produce only defective offspring, and the de- fect sometimes takes the form of epilepsy, some- times that of feeble-mindedness. The dangers of consanguineous marriage are great as likely to pro- duce any defect found in the ancestry." That form of insanity known as ''functional" is certainly inherited. This shows itself in the slighter forms as melancholia and in the profounder forms as dementia precox. ''The mental defect that is in- herited is not always of the same type. Thus in the same family may be found cases of melancholia, of senile dementia, of alcoholism and of feeble-minded- ness. When both parents have any form of insanity, all of their children go insane. If one parent is in- sane and the other normal, but of insane stock, half of the children tend to become insane. When both parents, though normal, belong to an insane stock, about one-fourth of the children become insane. It is fairly open to debate whether alcoholics are not usually mentally defective. An hereditary predis- position lies at the basis of most cases of insanity." "Pauperism usually means mental inefficiency. When one parent is more or less shiftless, while the other is industrious, only about ten per cent, of the children are very shiftless." "The desire for narcotics is a symptom of neuras- thenia tendency. Practically, inebriety means de- generacy: it is often but one of the varying mani- festations of bad heredity." If a glass of alcoholic liquor awakens a strong desire for more, the person will probably become a dipsomaniac. His relation to alcohol depends largely upon his associates; but his selection of associates again depends on his in- 94 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS nate tastes. A certain young man was of such an- cestry that it was predicted that he would be a dip- somaniac. For years the youth refrained from drink, and led an exemplary life. Finally, he was operated on for appendicitis, and, to hasten recovery, the surgeon gave him some brandy. An uncontrollable appetite was awakened, and the man soon died from alcoholism. Criminality is often due to inheritance of defects. Pedigree studies make this certain. Some pedigrees show chorea in inheritance. Some show speech defects, as stuttering, to be in families as permanent afflictions. Many defects of the eye and ear are known to be inheritable. When both parents are congenitally deaf, one-fourth of the marriages yield some deaf offspring, and one-fourth of all the offspring are deaf. If deaf partners to a marriage belong to the same strain — i. e., are related — ^the deaf offspring rise to 45 per cent. The closer the relationship of the parents, the larger the proportion of deaf child- ren. Certain skin defects are inheritances, as the dry, red itching patches (psoriasis), dryness of the skin in which plates are formed like the scales of a fish (ichthyoses), etc. So also are the epidermal organs, glands, hair, nails and teeth. There is "a family liability to cancer." Also cer- tain diseases of the muscles and the blood, as hernia and chlorosis. Diseases of the thyroid gland lead- ing to cretinism and goiter are hereditary, as are also inborn defects of the heart, arteries, veins, and re- spiratory system. Of the diseases of the alimentary tract and excre- tion, diabetes insipidus and jaundice and gout and stone in the bladder may have hereditary basis. There are many abnormaities of the skeleton that are inherited, as the absence of fingers or the excess THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 95 of fingers, deformities of the foot, as club foot. The same high authority as that from which are taken the foregoing facts on human heredity urges that with them all the chance of inheritance is greatly increased by consanguineous marriages, which permit defects that are not seen in the parents, but determinants for which are resident in their germ plasm, to reveal themselves in the offspring. Consanguineous marriages can not produce defects, but if there be defects common to the stock from which both parents descend, consanguineous mar- riage is sure to bring them out in the offspring. Foilunately, there is in the custom of almost every people on the earth a taboo against incest so power- ful that it is rarely violated. This eventuates in laws forbidding close intermarriage. Unfortunately however, there is some degree of consanguinity in the parents of most of us, for says Davenport, ''there are hardly two persons of European origin who are more distantly related than thirtieth cousin — or who do not have a common ancestor of the time of King William I of England (1066)." It is also true that barriers against freedom of marriage are found in the religious sects, in the social classes, in the races, in the clans, in the language spoken, in the geographical facts of mountain and water — all tending to inbreeding with its dangers. It must be true that the best asset of any people is the germ plasm of those families that have con- tributed children that in every generation have grown to be useful and happy citizens. The greatest menace of any people must be from those families that contribute children that grow to be moral and physical weaklings, that spread crime and disease in every gerieration. Plainly the interest of the people lies in methods of breeding that will promote the former and eliminate the latter. 96 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Tlie following: geolog-ical time table is taken from Osborn's Origin and Evolution of Life, in which sixty million years is takeq as the time elapsing since life was made. Duration of Period Order of Creation Geologic Ages Geologic Eras One-half Maiion Years Age of Man Caenozoic Quaternary Three Million Years Age of Mammals Tertiary m;„^ \/l\V V ^8e of Mesozoic Upf)er Cretaceous Lower Cretaceous INme IVliUion Years Reptiles Jurassic Triassic Eighteen Million Years Ageof Amphioians Ageof Fishes Age of Invertebrates Palaeozoic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Fifteen Million Years Evolution of Invertebrates Proterozoic Keeweenawan Huronian Fifteen Million Years Evolution of Unicellular Life Archaeozoic Laurentian Keewatin Joseph Barrell, Professor of Geology at Yale University, from studies made in 1918, gives the lapse of time since the beginning of the Cambrian Era, the earliest and lowest roclfs that contain fossils of forms that had life, to be between 550 million and 700 million years. He gives the time of the Caen- ozoic, the Age since the ancestors of modern mammals lived, to be from 55 million to 65 million years; Mesozoic, the Age of Reptiles, 135 to 180 million years long; Palaeozoic, from earliest fossils to fishes, 360 to 540 million years long. This is about ten times as long as Osborn's estimate. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 97 CHAPTER VI. The Facts From Fossils The stratified rocks in which fossil remains of an- cient forms of life are found are classified according to the time in which they were formed into the Pale- ozoic, or Ancient, the Mesozoic, or Middle, and the Caenozoic, or Recent. 1. The Paleozoic, the most ancient rocks that con- tain forms of life. Trilobites and crustaceans and molluscs are found in the lower rocks of this era; the simplest fishes and amphibia are found in its upper strata. The molluscs (shell fish) were for a long while of great size, number and variety — very far greater than they are now. They were the high- est form of life and the rulers of the seas for long ages. When fishes came into being, their backbone and higher nervous system gave them such advan- tage that they increased rapidly in size and number and variety. Because of their higher powers of body and mind, they overcame the molluscs; and so they became the rulers of the seas. The first back-boned animal was a sea animal and came into being in the Devonian era, just before the coal measures. At that time the land was covered with immense plants, the most highly developed then in existence being the mosses and ferns. The most highly developed land animals then in exist- ence were the worms and insects, the latter being a development from the former. It is because of this fact the eggs of all insects of the present day hatch into worms which are later transformed into insects. The era in which the coal strata were laid furnish us numerous fossils of beetles, cock-roaches, and of 98 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS a gigantic insect very similar to our dragon fly, but with wings that measured two feet across. This latter was probably the most highly developed land animal of the Paleozoic Age. Insects then as now had a world wide range, and huge crustaceans — lob- sters, crawfish, crabs, eac, flourished on the shores of all seas. There were also living on the land scor- pions and the ancestors of our present day spiders. Insects, of which there are now many hundred thousand species, are found as fossils so far back as the Cambrian era, whose strata, by estimate now thought to be very conservative, were laid eighty million years ago. Our simplest back-boned animal, the fish, certain- ly arose from one of the invertebrate forms, either from the trilobites, sea-scorpions, crustaceans, ma- rine arachnids, insects, worms, molluscs, or other forms of the early Paleozoic times. To determine which of these was the ancestor of the fish and to find specimens of the forms intermediate between this ancestor and the fish have been hard tasks, for there seems to be but little resemblance to the fish among any of these invertebrates, there being a wide difference between the vertebrates and the inverte- brates ; but it now seems that the biologists have suc- ceeded in demonstating that the marine arachnids, the ancient ancestors of our present scorpions and spiders, and the long extinct trilobites were the an- cestors of the fishes. Some believe that the immedi- ate ancestor of the fishes was the ostracoderms whose skeletons are found in the Silurian and De- vonian formations of Europe and North America. Patten states his belief that "at some time toward the close of the Cambrian period the sea-scorpions gave rise to the ostracoderms (shell-skins) and the latter, during the Silurian, to the fishes, or first true vertebrates." The ostracoderms were the highest THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 99 type of the period. The biologists have not in gen- eral agreed to accept the ostracoderm as the an- cestors. 2. The Mesozoic or Middle Age. Many of the forms of the Paleozoic became extinct, as the trilo- bites, and many are found to persist in the Mesozoic and the present age. In the Mesozoic Age leptiles came into being and predominated. They evolved from the fishes through amphibian links which arose during the coal age, the Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic. The reptiles grew into m^any varieties of form, some of them to huge size. There were swim- ming reptiles that ruled the sea, walking reptiles that ruled the land, flying reptiles that ruled the air. The reptiles were descendants of fishes, the breast fins becoming the jointed forele^?, the pelvic fins the hindlegs. The earliest amphibia are found in the time of the coal bearing strata, and they have feet of five toes, just as frogs, toads and salamanders of today have. The wonderful change from fin of fish to five-toed feet of reptiles certainly took place at that early time; and it is as much beyond explana- tion as the later changes of the anas and h-ands of the reptile into wings. Out of the earliest amphibia there evolved not only the frogs, toads and salamanders of our day, but the gigantic reptiles referred to as dominating the land, sea and air during the periods of the Meso- zoic Age. Some of them grew to immense size, larger, indeed, than any other animal that has ever lived except the whale, which came into being long after they were extinct. Some species of a class of these reptiles, the dinosaurs, could stand on their hind limbs and reach to a tree top twenty feet high. Some flying reptiles had wings that were twenty feet from tip to tip. Many reptiles reverted to life in the sea, changing from land habits to swimming habits, 100 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS their legs and feet evolving into flippers or paddles, as we find in the ichthyosaurus (fish-lizard) and plesiosaurus; and, finding the fish an easy prey. they grew to immense proportions. The bones of one species of dinosaurs, the brontosaurus, prove that it THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 101 was seventy-five feet long, while there were others reptiles which were only a few inches. The reptiles were thus of varied forms and sizes, there being thousands of species, and were as much masters of the earth in the Mesozoic Age as man is now. It seems strange that the lizards, tortoises, crocodiles and snakes, which now hide in dark out-of-way places should be their only descendants living today, for all over the earth we find the Mesozoic rocks containing the bones of reptilian monsters now ex- tinct that once were the rulers of land, air and sea. Despite the extinction of almost all the reptiles, science has been able with the fossils to get a fairly accurate picture of the earth when the reptiles were its masters. **We know," says H. G. Wells, "the forms and habits of creatures that no living being has ever seen, that no human eye has ever regarded, and the character of scenery that no man has ever seen or can ever possibly see ! We picture to ourselves the labyrinthodon raising its clumsy head above the water of the carboniferous swamps in which he lived, and we figure the pterodactyls, those great bird lizards, flapping their way athwart the forests of the Mesozoic Age with exactly the same certainty as that with which we picture the rhinoceros or the vulture. I doubt no more about the facts in this farther picture than I do about those in the nearest. I believe in the megatherium which I have never seen as confidently as I believe in the hippopotamus that has engulfed buns from my hands. Scientific criti- cism has discovered the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ages and brought them into the world of human thought. We have thus become possessed of a new and once unsuspected history of the world." 3. The Caenozoic or Recent Age. This age reaches to the present time; and because the mam- mals, which had come into being in the previous age, 102 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS became predominant, it is called the Age of Mam- mals. The Mammals, the first found being the size of a small rat and of the type known as marsupials (bearing their young in pouches), had begun their existence in the early Mesozoic and for millions of years they remained small and insignificant, but in the Caenozoic they developed very rapidly, increas- ing in number and variety and powers until they took the mastery of the earth. The reptiles per- sisted, as did the fishes and the molluscs, but in di- minishing numbers and in subordinate position. The reptiles being cold blooded died out as colder clim- ates came to be of the earth. Finally man came into being — a mammal with superior intelligence because of his larger and better brain, destroying those ani- mals dangerous to him and preserving those useful to him, and so acquiring the mastery of the earth. We find in the Triassic period of the Mesozoic Age in South Carolina, Germany and South Africa rocks that contain the oldest remains yet found of the warm-blooded, fur-bearing, milk-giving animals which we call mammals. These early mammals were very tiny, none of them larger than a rat, many of them much smaller. Their teeth show that some were plant eaters, and others were flesh eaters. We find in the Cretaceous period, especially in Wyom- ing, in the sandstones formed along the shores of what was then an inland sea stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean, numerous of the teeth and bones of these tiny ancestors of men and all other living mammals. Though millions of years elapsed between the Triassic period, when they were first found, and the close of the Cretaceous period, the mammals had not increased in size, probably for the reason that only very small animals could escape the immense land-living reptiles which in the Cretaceous period were the dominating animals. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 103 In the Wyoming region alluded to there have been found vast numbers of bones of these dinosaurs, some of them seventy feet long, and along with them the teeth and bones of the tiny mammals. Some of these dinosaurs had teeth and claws, and were flesh eaters. Prof. R. S. Lull of Yale University, who has made a personal study of these Wyoming beds l^Popular Science Monthly, September, 1915) gives the following sketch of the struggle and rise of the earliest mammals: ''The scene is the broad savanna-like, low-lying lands over which wandered the huge reptiles then at the very culmination of their evolution. But what of the mammals? Where were they, and how did they survive the competition with the dinosaurs? Possibly their very insignificance was their chief safeguard, just as countless small rodents and insect- eating creatures live today in the lion- and buffalo- haunted African jungles. The evidence is clear that these mammals and the dinosaurs were contempor- aries in the same locality." "These forebears of modern beasts and man live long ages without measurable progress, while rep- tiles undergo remarkable evolution and include mighty forms, that soon become entirely extinct! But the mammals, with the tenacity of their race, are merely awaiting their opportunity, although so effective is the check laid upon them by their cold blooded contemporaries that for them evolution practically ceases while the march of time goes on. At last comes the day of reckoning when, due to some cause or causes of which we have not yet learned the nature, although they were doubtless conditioned on the mountain-making revolution which closed the Age of Reptiles, the dinosaurs, after their multimillenial career, are blotted out and the Age of Mammals is begun. Now from their fast- 104 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS nesses stream the furry hosts impelled by age-long earth hunger, to fill every station in the economy of nature which the reptiles had possessed, and now the evolutionary mill, turning faster and faster, grinds out the beasts both small and great which be- come in their turn the rulers of the earth until their place is usurped by humanity." By the end of the next period, the Eocene, we find forms that we know to be ancestors of many kinds of mammals now living. The present geologic age, the Caenozoic, followed the era of chalk deposits, the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic Age, which ended some four or five million years ago. The geologist is able to make out with much accuracy many features of the earth at that time, its land surface and seas and the plants and animals then living. This fact is most clearly shown by excerpts from an article by Prof. Edward Berry of Johns Hopkins in Scientific Monthly of August, 1917, in which he describes what he found by a study of the 'Taris Basin:" ''During the Upper Cretaceous a shallow sea of Atlantic origin invaded the Paris Basin. The prevailing sediments of this sea were earthy limestones commonly known as chalk, and this Upper Cretaceous chalk now out- crops in a broad ring around Paris, its inner margin lying from 30 to 100 miles distant. The chalk under- lies all the later deposits (the Eocene, Miocene, etc.) in the center of the Basin. The fossil shells that we dig out of the chalk and that represent the inhabit- ants of the Upper Cretaceous sea carry us back some four millions of years when man was not even a promise and the dinosaurs were the lords of creation. "The Cretaceous seas swarmed with specialized cephalopods known as ammonites. Thousands of species are known and not one survives in Eocene times. The changes in the other forms of marine THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 105 life, while not so spectacular, are equally marked. For example, in the earliest Eocene sea of south- eastern North America we find an entirely different fauna from that found in the Cretaceous beds lying immediately beneath these Eocene deposits. Equal- ly great changes mark the earliest Eocene terrestrial faunas and floras. For example, about 350 species of plants are known from the lower Eocene of south- eastern North America and not one of these plants has been found in the Upper Cretaceous anywhere. We are in an apparently new world in Eocene times. ''Between Sezanne and Reims a considerable area is occupied by marls and limestones. These are freshwater limestones and marls that were deposited in a large lake or series of ponds, as is indicated by the variety and numbers of shells of pond snails found fossil in these deposits. Nearly fifty different kinds are known and these include some land snails. In the lakes and rivers were fish of various kinds in- cluding the curious mud fishes (amia) and swarms of gar pikes (lepidosteus) both now confined to North America. Turtles of several kinds were abun- dant and salamanders have also been found. Croco- diles basked on the banks or hunted in the waters and these included both the Nile type of crocodile and the long-snouted Ganges type or gavial. ''The shores were densely wooded with broad- leafed warm-temperature types of trees. At Sezanne we can almost reconstruct the whole picture. A swift-flowing stream, as shown by its pebbly bed, cascaded from a low chalk escarpment into a damp wooded ravine which opened into the Rilly lake. Mosses and stoneworts sheltered the crayfish. Moisture-loving plants, like the two marchantites, and a variety of ferns covered the stream banks which were overhung by figs and laurels, magnolias, walnuts, maples and a host of tree types since be- 106 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS come extinct or no longer found in Europe. Insects and even such delicate objects as flowers are faith- fully preserved in the travertine. (This is the white chalky stuff that was deposited in water that held lime in solution.) Altogether twelve species of fern have been found at Sezanne, and these include sev- eral of the tree fern genera, eloquent witnesses of the humid climate. Ten different species of laurel have been found at Sezanne and these include a sassafras now confined to North America. Dryo- phyllum, which is considered the ancestral stock from which both the oaks and chestnuts were de- rived, was very common along the borders of the lower Eocene sea both in Europe and America. Mag- nolia is another Sezanne type that is no longer found in Europe, but is now confined to southeastern North America and southeastern Asia. Some of the m.ore familiar Sezanne tj^pes were bayberries or swamp myrtle, alders, birches, elms, cottonwoods, maples, willows, sheepberries, buckthorn and cornel. ''A few^ of the land animals that roamed in the Sezanne woods have been discovered around Reims. They have been found in the seashore and river channel gravels which also contain sharks' teeth and molluscan shells of mixed marine and estuary forms. Scattered bones represent the land animals that were accidentally drowned or whose dead carcasses were swept down the streams into the estuaries and coastal lagoons. These give us a welcome glimpse of the terrestrial animal life of these early times. They comprise small insectivores, lemur-like forms, small gnawing marsupials, numerous primitive carni- vores and a few primitive hoofed animals, an assem- blage much like that found in the Puerco beds of New Mexico and of similar age. In these earliest Eocene times the plants and animals of the whole Northern Hemisphere were much alike and were THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 107 able to migrate freely from Europe and Asia to and from North America." (There were then land areas in what is now the upper parts of the Atlantic ocean and the Pacific ocean.) The ''small insectivores, lemur-like forms, small gnawing marsupials, numerous primitive carnivores and a few primitive hoofed animals" which compris- ed the highest animals during Eocene nmes, about four millions of years ago, are long ago extinct. They were the descendants of the earliest mammals, which were about the size of a small rat and which came into existence perhaps a million of years before the Eocene era. The Eocene mammals were them- selves the ancestors of the modernized mammals, as the horse, dog, hog, cat, monkey and man. From each of the types of mammals then living and now extinct there came descendants whose forms changed through the long centuries to ''be- come better adapted to many and highly diversified places in the economy of nature." For instance, "the feet which are correlated chiefly with the limb and body structure, and the teeth, which are corre- lated chiefly with the skull and neck structure, diverge from an earlier form and evolve independ- ently in adaptation to securing food and to eating food under different conditions of life and in differ- ent environments. Each part evolves directly to perform its own mechanical functions and purposes, yet in such a manner that each subserves all the other parts." (Osborn). All the biologists agree in teaching that man and the higher apes are related and are derived from a common stock. Their views on this most interesting subject are set forth by The New International Year Book, 1916, page 35, as follows: "Man and the anthropoid apes have been derived from a primitive anthropoid stock, man's nearest liv- 108 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS ing relatives being the chimpanzee and gorilla. While with the latter, however, ancestral habits and character of brain, teeth, skull and limbs have per- sisted, the forerunners of man underwent a pro- found change in function, giving up arboreal frugivorous adjustments and becoming at an early period terrestrial, bipedal, and predatory, with the development of crude flints for cutting up and smashing the varied food. The ancestral stock from which man, the gorilla, and the chimpanzee have sprung is represented by two Upper Miocene genera, sivapithecus and dryopithecus (large extinct apes of the middle Miocene of France and elsewhere). The sivapithecus is more directly the ancestor of man. Man differs from the sivapithecus largely in the way of retrogressive changes due to the alter- ation of his food habits. There have been a retrac- tion of the face and dental arch, the reduction of the canines and of the jaw muscles, as well as the loss of the prehensile character of the great toe. Other differences are secondary adjustment in relative pro- portions connected with the change from semi-arbor- eal to fully terrestrial bipedal locomotion. The hom- inidae (races of men) probably branched off from the simiidae (races of apes) not earlier than the Mio- cene or even Upper Miocene." Osborn, the leading biologist of our country, esti- mates that the human race emerged from the ape forms and began walking upright and using its hand to fashion tools at least 525,000 years ago, or about the end of the Pliocene era. He says that ''man as such was evolved chiefly during the half million years of the Pleistocene epoch." A jawbone found in 1907 seventy-nine feet below the surface of a sandy bluff in Heidelberg, Germany, was that of a man who lived at least 250,000 years ago. So much as to the fossil remains of animals. The THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 109 remains found in the rocks of the first unmistakable plants are so highly organized that it is beyond any doubt true that there was a long series of simpler forms antecedent to them that required for their de- velopment long ages — perhaps several geologic eras. There is, however, reason to believe that the bacteria and blue-green algae now existing are like the earlier forms of plant life. The earliest plants may be assumed to have been one-celled greenish indi- viduals moving about in the water. They probably abounded in the seas of the earlier geologic epochs when there was but little salt in the water of the ocean. As the saltness of the water increased, the descendants of some of the one-celled algae devel- oped into seaweeds, the red and the brown, some of which, the giant kelps of the Pacific, become the highest forms of marine plants; while others of the primitive green algae developed in bodies of fresh water to become the ancestors of all higher forms of land plants. The ferns developed roots and spores, the roots conducting the water to the tissues and developing a body with stem and leaves. The spores being able to resist dryness and cold develop- ed in higher plants into seeds. By variations in subsequent ages, the present forms of roots, stems, leaves and flowers were gradually acquired, the forms adapting themselves to plain and mountain, to heat and cold, to moist and dry conditions. All types of plants now on the earth except the highest types of seed plants, the angiosperms, are found in the fossils of the Paleozoic Age. In the De- vonian part of that age, we find the ferns and primi- tive seed plants which developed into such luxuriant growths in the Carboniferous. In that age, however, the fossils show that all over the earth the plants were nearly the same, there being little or no differ- ence between the fossils of the Carboniferous Era 110 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS found in the Arctic regions and those in the Tropical regions. Then ferns, mosses, liverworts and horse- tails were all over the earth. The various regions of the earth now have plants very different from each other. After the Carboniferous Era the fossil plants gradually changed to their present forms in the various zones. During the Permian Era, that just after the Carboniferous, the fossil flora of the northern and southern hemisphers showed marked differences, and the modern firs, pines and cycads begin to appear. During the Mesozoic Age, the age of the great reptiles and the age that produced birds and mammals among animals, the highest plants first appear, the angiosperms, with their arraj^ of flowers. These appear quite suddenly in the strata of the Cretaceous era, the last period of the Meso- zoic Age, the poplars, willows, planes, tulip trees, and magnolias then being found widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. After this, in the Ter- tiary geologic age, we find the remains of oaks. We can now plainly see the fact that forms of life which began as a simple cell in the earliest Paleo- zoic Age became more complex and various from age to age; that forms of life underwent a ''continuous, progressive ch'ange according to certain laws by means of resident forces," (LeConte), for not only do we find in the oldest lowest rocks the simplest, least organized forms, but in tracing the forms from stratum to stratum we find ''successively forms more and more complex in structure, in the interaction of correlated parts and in the interaction with the en- vironment, until we reach the highest structure only in the present time." This makes plain the fact that the present forms of life are what they are because of their being the last of a long series of changes — of a process of evolution. The continuous, progress- ive changes from the age in which fungi and algae THE xMAKING OF LIVING THINGS 111 BIANS REOTIL From Scientific Monthly, Nm^ember, 1916. Oshorn's Evolution of Life. Order of Appearance and Expansion of the Classes of Vertebrate Animals. J> CAENOZOIO J> MESOZOIG } PALEOZOIC From Andreics Botany. Development of Plants 112 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS were the highest forms of plants and molluscs were the highest forms of animals to the present time is seen in rough outline in the accompanying diagrams. The ferns developed in the era just before the Car- boniferous and the firs and pines just afterward. It is conceded that the evolution of the multifar- ious forms of life has required many millions of years, probably many hundreds of millions. It is impossible to form an opinion as to the age of the earth — to find the time when, from dispersed matter, the law of gravitation orbed our planet and sent it spinning around the sun in days and years — but the geologists are agreed that an approximate estimate can be made of the number of millions of years that have elapsed since the first stratum of sediment was laid on the plutonic rocks in the bottom of the ocean. As one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydro- gen will invariably rush into combination and be- come the steam or hot watery vapor when they, as gases, are subjected to a temperature of 5,000 de- grees Farenheit, it must have happened that when our earth's surface had lowered its temperature to this point a surface crust would be formed, the hy- drogen and oxygen gases of its atmosphere and its interior would be converted into steam, and a still further cooling of this crust would cause the condensation of the steam into water, with which the entire surface of the earth would be covered. As some of the land areas were elevated above others, continents and ocean basins would be formed. Thus the settling of the water in the ocean basins would be followed by the formation of continents of land whose surface would be eroded by the action of water, which, as rivers, would carry the eroded material to the sea, where it would sink to the bot- tom and form the stratified rocks. The geologists are agreed that since the oldest strata on the earth THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS lir. were thus laid there have elapsed hundreds of mil- lions of years. Some geologists estimate the time at many hundred million years. The period of time has been sufficiently long to make sedimentary de- posits into strata which, if all of them were laid one above the other at the same place, would make a height of fifty miles above that first laid. The time necessary to accumulate this enormous thickness of sediment on the crust, the time necessary to wear away certain known elevated surfaces of land by the action of water and wind and frost, the time neces- sary to derive the salt and other contents of the ocean from the land by the washings of rivers (for the ocean was at first pure water) — ^these, with cer- tain other data known to the chemist and physicist, make the basis for the estimate of geologic time. This estimate must be fairly accurate, for the differ- ent methods of computing reach approximately the same result. In the same way as that by which the scientists estimate the number of years since the oldest strata of rocks were laid, they determine the number of years since those strata containing the earliest fossil forms of life were laid. The last era, the Age of Mammals, is estimated by Osborne and others to be four millions of years, and as the geolo- gists reckon this age to be approximately one- twentieth of the whole time since the most ancient rocks containing fossils were laid, we may safely say in answer to the question, "How long since life ap- peared on the earth?" to be not less than eighty million years. The probability is that it is much more. (Osborne). It is interesting to note that it has required about three million years for our horse to develop from from a four-toed ancestor, the eohippus. We can form some estimate of the earth changes during that time from the facts that where the Alps, the 114 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS Pyrenees, and Himalaya Mountains now are there were then level surfaces partly washed by the sea and that the Colorado River had not then begun to carve the canon that is now 6,000 feet deep. Every stage in progress of the horse toward a form that gave him more fleetness, larger size, and other qualities that enabled him to survive we should re- member was due to changes made in the egg-cell from which the individual horse developed. The egg changes consisted of either the making of new chemical bodies or the dropping out of chemical bodies or a change in the constitution of one or more of the chemical bodies that make up the chromo- somes in the nucleus of the egg. These little chemi- cal bodies in the egg determine the shape of the head and foot and every other feature of the adult. As has been stated, though we can not explain how it is done, the changes in the intimate structure of the seed or egg are brought into being by changes in the environment — in the light, heat, climate, vicissitudes of all kinds, food supply, soil, methods of protection against enemies, and every stimulus that reaches the organism. If the change in the egg produces a change in the adult of distinct advantage to its life the variety will persist. The power of a different environment to change the forms of animals and plants is made very clear to us when we see that in all those areas where the geologists find that there were sudden and vast changes in the land levels and climates, the fossils of the strata then laid always show the rapid ex- tinction of many forms of life and the appearence of many new forms, the rapid evolution of new types of animals and plants. The strata of the earth also show that fossil forms remain constant in type dur- ing ages when conditions are constant. It is because conditions have been constant on most parts of the THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 115 globe for a long time during the present age that we find so few changes in progress in the forms of plants and animals now existing. During the time when the great Appalachian area of North America was being uplifted many varieties of animals and plants whose remains are now found as fossil became extinct and forms not hitherto seen were evolved, some of them to become the ancestors of certain of our common birds and reptiles of this age. But, according to Prof. S. W. Williston, the most remarkable and extensive quickening of the evolutionary process took place in Asia during the Pliocene Age while the vast Himalayan plateau was being raised from near the sea level to miles above coincidently with a change of climate from almost tropical warmth to almost arctic cold. In the Plio- cene strata, so the paleontologists tell us, we find in Java the top of the skull, several teeth and a thigh bone, lying at certain distance from each other, of an extinct animal half man and half ape, whose des- cendants probably became man, who, in his long contest with the glacial epoch, had to live in caves and clothe himself in the skin of beasts in order to withstand the cold. Thus probably he lost his own covering of hair, which atrophied because for long it was of no advantage. They tell us that in Central Asia they find fossil remains of the ancestors of most of our domestic animals, the cow, the buffalo,the sheep, the goat, the horse, the ass, the elephant. They also tell us that the hog was evolved in India, and was there domesticated. The peccary, a kind of hog found in America, is not found below Oligocenc stratum. The reindeer, the ancestor of the cari- bous, evolved in Central Asia, as did also the cat, the highest of the carnivora. Fossil remains of the immediate ancestor of the dog have not been found, but as there are wild dogs in Asia today that are 116 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS similar to many strains of our domesticated dog, it seems probable that he also arose there. Indeed, the only domestic animals of the mammal class that did not originate in Asia are the camel and its kins- men, the llamas and alpacas, which arose from lower forms in North America. They tell us also that the fossil remains of the immediate ancestors of the chicken and ostrich and peacock and goose and dove and duck are found in these same Pliocene strata of Asia, and also that they find there and then the fossil remains of the immediate ancestors of the ma- jority of our domestic plants. (S. W. Williston, Popular Science Monthly, Dec. 1910.) As all the animals and plants named above have undergone but little variation for the last several thousand years, and as they are known to be from ancestors that underwent vast changes of form and other qualities during the changing conditions of the Pliocene Age, it must be a safe assertion to say that a changed environment is everywhere capable of working variations that will remain con- stant so long as the environment is constant, as it has been for the most part on the earth since the advent of the present geologic age, and that as the environ- ment changes corresponding variation will in time appear. The forces at work in the Pliocene Age may be assumed to have been the same as those which are now acting, but they were then combined dif- ferently, and they were far more intense. It seems, therefore, to be manifest that it is the strains and stresses due to changes in the environment that have changed the few simple forms that we find in the early Cambrian Age, and that were laid there per- haps more than a hundred million years ago, into the hundreds of thousands of highly specialized varieties that make up the world of life as we now have it. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 117 CHAPTER VII. The Cycle of Creation Recent researches in physics and chemistry reveal the fact that all things are built of electrons. They prove beyond all doubt that the atoms of the eighty- three elements known to us and heretofore supposed to be the ultimate and indestructible particles of matter are each and all composed of units of electri- cal force. The atoms are therefore temporary elec- trical structures. The atoms of these eighty-three different elements vary in size and weight, the largest being composed of the greatest number of electrons and therefore the heaviest. One hundred millions of the largest atoms may be laid side by side on a linear inch. Three hundred millions of the smallest may be laid on an inch. These dimensions, though inconceivably small, are now well established as facts. As the electrons make up the atoms of all mater- ial bodies and as the movement of electrons causes all the light and heat and energy of the universe, it must be true that all things, all forms and all quali- ties of all forms, are created by the mutual influence of electrons. As the higher animals are among the objects made up of these electrons and as the higher animals feel, think and act there must be that in the electron from which the feeling, acting and think- ing of individuals is derived. The electron is known to be a self-active individual sensitive to the influence of other electrons. This is all that is known of it ex- cept its size and force ; but as we know that it is the building stone of every form of matter in the uni- verse, it would seem to be logical to conclude that 118 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS the qualities of every structure in the universe are derivatives from qualities of the electron, which seems to be spiritual as well as material in its nature. The spirit of God is embodied in it. Its sensitivity is the probable source of the special sensations of sight, sound, touch, etc., which give to animals their picture of the world and of the self, the content of their consciousness. There is much reason to be- lieve that the electron itself is a conscious being. It is certainly sensitive and probably endowed with a mental quality of greater power than the special senses of sight, sound, touch, etc., which seem to be derivatives from it. The making of atoms and the making of all other forms through a process of evolution in which liv- ing forms come into existence under certain con- ditions and evolve to higher forms are sketched briefly in the following stanzas. The author hopes that they will assist the reader in visualizing the scheme of things entire. ^* .s^* ^■' Electrons move and feel and live. Creative force of God, Their mutual pull and push do give The world, its soul and sod. XL Electrons must together draw To make all atoms known. And these by gravitation's law In glowing globes are thrown. THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS 119 III. The sun thus came and gave the earth, Whose dust became life's cell, And groups of cells led to the birth Of forms in which minds dwell. IV. Amoeba, worm, insect and then The backboned tribes were cast. Fish, reptiles, birds and mammals, when The apes and men rose last. And so with plants: bacillus first. Then algae green, then fern. Then pine, then oak, then roses burst And daisies flash in turn. VI. Whatever be the form, its seed Unfolds life's stages won. And moth or man is born, God's deed Through evolution done. VII. Life's evolution will not rest On heights the past has known. More joy is the incessant quest, More justice on the throne. VIII. New forms will rise with powers cast Above man's poor weak way; The aeons vast already past Are only half life's day. 120 THE MAKING OF LIVING THINGS IX. But what begins must end : the old Must change and pass away, The sun and earth grow dark and cold, Then cease to be for aye. X. The planets all to sun will fall And there through space will ride. In light of twinkling stars, a pall. Till sun and star collide. XL A nebula is then begun Which unrolls nature's years. Revolving globes spin round a sun, And life again appears.